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DenverChief
07-09-2010, 03:52 AM
Scientists at the National Institutes of Health have identified long-sought and elusive broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV in a pair of papers published in the July 9 issue of Science. These proteins produced by the innate immune system are crucial for creating a preventive vaccine (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-aids-vaccine-search-goes-on), and could also have therapeutic uses developed in the coming years or decades.

Variations in individuals' innate and adaptive immune systems can dramatically affect responses to infection—HIV (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=male-semen-makes-hiv-more-potent) is no exception. The result generally can be shown as a bell curve, with a group of people whose disease progresses rapidly, a broad middle segment who progress typically, and a small group of "elite controllers (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=hiv-aids-controllers)" whose immune systems are quite effective at containing HIV viral replication.

The quest to figure out why has focused primarily on the adaptive immune system, because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have a clearly demonstrated capacity to kill cells infected with HIV. But that response only arises some days, weeks and even months after a person has been exposed to HIV and the virus has integrated itself into cellular DNA, establishing lifelong infection. The adaptive immune response can only contain an established infection, it cannot prevent that infection from occurring at its onset.

The innate immune system (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tripping-the-innate-immun) is the first line of defense against infection. It attacks at the initial exposure to a pathogen, and can prevent the establishment of infection—and HIV is no exception. But there are a number of reasons why it has proved difficult to identify components of the innate immune response that can neutralize the deadly virus.

HIV transmission is not very efficient. Exposed persons may avoid infection (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=circumcision-and-aids) for a variety of mechanical (barrier) and biological reasons, such as the virus's failure to penetrate to the surface of mucosal tissue or dendritic cell difficulties in latching onto the virus to carry it to a lymph node. So it is challenging to conclusively identify the contribution of a specific innate immune response that can prevent an initial infection.

Over the years, it has become clear that there are factors other than CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that help to control the virus in at least a portion of those infected with HIV.

Researchers have identified several antibodies (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=chicken-eggs-made-to-prod) that can neutralize the virus. Most of them bind weakly to small, often deep, pockets on the virus. In most instances, once infection becomes established rapidly mutating HIV evolves resistance to those narrowly focused antibodies, often by adding glycans or sugars to its outer envelope, which shields or blocks antibody access to the binding site.

What is needed is an antibody that binds strongly to a surface site on the virus, and which cannot be easily blocked. It is also important that the binding site is greatly conserved across the many strains of HIV.

Researchers at NIH Vaccine Research Center (VRC) decided to look at neutralizing antibodies in the blood of persons who are able to better control HIV infection. Elite controllers were not part of the mix because they seem to control HIV through their adaptive immunological system T cell mechanisms.

Using sophisticated reverse-engineering techniques, the researchers identified three proteins that are broadly neutralizing, which they labeled VRC01, VRC02 and VRC03. They also isolated the B cells that produced them.

The first two antibodies have very similar chemical structures and bind to HIV's gp120 trimer spike on its surface. The virus uses the trimer to link up with a CD4 receptor, which is the first of many steps taken to enter and infect a host cell. The antibody and gp120 spike bind in a way that is, in part, similar to the way that the spike and CD4 receptor bind.

As a result, VRC01 and VRC02 binding is particularly long and strong compared with the bonds formed by other antibodies. Further, the binding site on the gp120 spike is well exposed and not likely to become blocked by the addition of sugars to the viral envelope.

The two antibodies neutralized 91 percent of the 190 different HIV isolates that the team tested. Those isolates represent all of the various clades or strains of HIV present worldwide, says John Mascola, one of the VRC research team leaders. Also, the antibodies were able to neutralize all of the limited number of HIV variants that are transmitted sexually—a key point, because 80 percent of all new infections result from sexual activity.

VRC01 and VRC02 occur naturally and are produced by what are called RSC3 memory-specific B cells, an extremely rare component of the innate immune system. Using flow cytometry, the NIH team could isolate only 29 of those cells from among the 25 million cells that they screened. Furthermore, the proteins produced by those B cells often are immature and itappears that the proteins must undergo a series of combinations before they become functional VRC01 or VRC02.

X-ray crystallography allowed the researchers "to identify the [antibody's] binding site down to the atomic level structure…. It is a particularly invariant part of the CD4 binding site, which is exposed," Mascola says. He calls that knowledge "a blueprint from which to design new vaccines (http://www.scientificamerican.com/topic.cfm?id=vaccines). It allows us to try to design a protein that mimics and presents that specific site to the immune system" to stimulate B cells "to crank out the antibody."

Mascola acknowledges the complex nature of the VRC01 and VRC02 antibodies and their low naturally occurring numbers may prove to be an obstacle to developing a vaccine. It is too early to understand all of the issues surrounding the stimulation of antibody production and the concentration necessary to afford protection from infection.

The VRC research team has designed vaccine antigens that already are in preclinical study in small animals (http://www.scientificamerican.com/topic.cfm?id=animals). If those prove successful, the work may advance into a monkey model, although it is not completely clear how monkeys can control the simian version of HIV (http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=contrary-to-past-thinking-the-simia-2009-07-22) and not progress to advanced disease. The identification of VRC01 and VRC02 may also help to advance a better understanding of the disease in monkeys.

Mascola says these discoveries also may lead to development of a "therapeutic vaccine" or immune-based therapy that helps train the innate immune system of an HIV-infected person to better control the virus without the use of drugs.

It may be possible to mass-produce these antibodies for passive administration as an adjunct or substitute for current small molecule drugs used to treat HIV. And if production costs can be reduced sufficiently there may be a role for them in topical microbicides as a preventative for HIV exposure.

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=discovery-of-new-antibodies-hiv

Saggysack
07-09-2010, 05:18 AM
I'm reloading my potato gun. Pull your cruiser back around, fella.

RedDread
07-09-2010, 05:47 AM
Okay, AIDS is cured.

How's sustainable nuclear fusion coming along?

Sofa King
07-09-2010, 08:40 AM
well fuck..... guess we'll need a new kind of flaming tree.....

Demonpenz
07-09-2010, 03:47 PM
they need to find a way to kill the mosqitos that carry the virus

SDChiefs
07-09-2010, 03:51 PM
Ummm, is this the T Virus?

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 04:16 PM
no. it's an antibody. not a virus.

SDChiefs
07-09-2010, 04:30 PM
no. it's an antibody. not a virus.

Correct me if im wrong. But wasn't the T Virus originally a helpful tool to regrow cells that turned into a "virus" because it caused mutation in its patients?

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 04:40 PM
Correct me if im wrong. But wasn't the T Virus originally a helpful tool to regrow cells that turned into a "virus" because it caused mutation in its patients?

I typed out a lengthy response giving defintions of antibodies, antigens, viruses, regrowth/regeneration, and a quick explanation of how the immune system works. I deleted it because it felt pompous and didn't really touch upon your question.

do you WANT an explanation of why your comment is a bit asinine, or should I just point out that (understandably) video game programmers didn't exactly have the vaguest understanding of the human immune system when they invented some fictional viruses?

Mr. Laz
07-09-2010, 05:07 PM
Ummm, is this the T Virus?
http://moviesmedia.ign.com/movies/image/article/715/715818/resident-evil-extinction-20060629044443727-000.jpg

Pants
07-09-2010, 05:12 PM
I typed out a lengthy response giving defintions of antibodies, antigens, viruses, regrowth/regeneration, and a quick explanation of how the immune system works. I deleted it because it felt pompous and didn't really touch upon your question.

do you WANT an explanation of why your comment is a bit asinine, or should I just point out that (understandably) video game programmers didn't exactly have the vaguest understanding of the human immune system when they invented some fictional viruses?

We already know you're a pompous jackass. Please give us the whole answer, I'm actually interested in what it had to say.

Detoxing
07-09-2010, 05:15 PM
So....does this mean the unprotected, promiscuous sex in back in style?

Viva La Sexual Revolution!

HoneyBadger
07-09-2010, 05:34 PM
Well this news is pointless if you have AIDS.

AustinChief
07-09-2010, 05:38 PM
Well this news is pointless if you have AIDS.

Not really, if they can either sythesize vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 or a protein that causes the body to increase production of vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 .. then you are lookign at a fairly effective treatment... although probably a lifelong one.

Mr. Laz
07-09-2010, 05:58 PM
Not really, if they can either sythesize vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 or a protein that causes the body to increase production of vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 .. then you are lookign at a fairly effective treatment... although probably a lifelong one.
sounds like it could replace the current drug cocktail that people are taking which is probably a good thing. I wonder it it would cause remission and therefore stop contagion?

i wouldn't want to be one of the trial patients for it though

ClevelandBronco
07-09-2010, 06:10 PM
Damn. We've lost some good people along the way. Let's hope this is the magic bullet.

kysirsoze
07-09-2010, 06:28 PM
I typed out a lengthy response giving defintions of antibodies, antigens, viruses, regrowth/regeneration, and a quick explanation of how the immune system works. I deleted it because it felt pompous and didn't really touch upon your question.

do you WANT an explanation of why your comment is a bit asinine, or should I just point out that (understandably) video game programmers didn't exactly have the vaguest understanding of the human immune system when they invented some fictional viruses?

You got there eventually! LMAO:thumb:

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:12 PM
We already know you're a pompous jackass. Please give us the whole answer, I'm actually interested in what it had to say.

ROFL

I'll get on it here in a moment; I could spit out a quick answer, but there's so much depth to this topic that it requires a bit of thought to compose it in a way that's slightly understandable to us mere mortals.

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:15 PM
Not really, if they can either sythesize vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 or a protein that causes the body to increase production of vrc01,vrc02 & vrc03 .. then you are lookign at a fairly effective treatment... although probably a lifelong one.

possibly; I can think of a few ways that they could stimulate an immune response that would elicit the antibody and antigen production of T and B memory cells (that would theoretically enable a person to be 'cured,' as their immune system would be able to fight any further lysogenic activations)

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:18 PM
sounds like it could replace the current drug cocktail that people are taking which is probably a good thing. I wonder it it would cause remission and therefore stop contagion?

i wouldn't want to be one of the trial patients for it though

dude, there would be absolutely no risk with being a trial patient for this. your body produces antibodies for a VAST amount of microbes and cells in your body. all an antibody is is a protein that elicits an immune response.

I GUESS it COULD lead to an aggressive immune response (also known as inflammation), which rarely can lead to organ shut-down. however, if done properly (by not merely pumping the body full of strange antibodies, thus shocking the system), there is absolutely no cause for concern. it's not like they're going to inject a pure, live virus sample.

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:18 PM
You got there eventually! LMAO:thumb:

ROFL

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:23 PM
Damn. We've lost some good people along the way. Let's hope this is the magic bullet.

finding a cure to AIDS isn't going to require merely one magic bullet; it'll take several. this virus is a very agile one, in that the virus has several 'fail-safes' to prevent total treatment (if that makes ANY sense). there are, last time I checked, 26 different strains and hybrids of HIV/AIDS. every time in the past that they thought a magic bullet was found, a mutation or mutations occurred (or they were only treating one issue of several) and it was found to be fruitless.

Pioli Zombie
07-09-2010, 07:31 PM
Good news for Jeff Garcia.

BossChief
07-09-2010, 07:34 PM
You can all thank Magic Johnson and the Lakers for this tremendous breakthrough.

Mr. Laz
07-09-2010, 07:52 PM
finding a cure to AIDS isn't going to require merely one magic bullet; it'll take several. this virus is a very agile one, in that the virus has several 'fail-safes' to prevent total treatment (if that makes ANY sense). there are, last time I checked, 26 different strains and hybrids of HIV/AIDS. every time in the past that they thought a magic bullet was found, a mutation or mutations occurred (or they were only treating one issue of several) and it was found to be fruitless.

your the disease guy ... aren't you?

used to go by "ToxicPlague" or something

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 07:55 PM
your the disease guy ... aren't you?

used to go by "ToxicPlague" or something

nope. ebola, perhaps?

and yeah, I'm the resident virus/bacteria (and by proxy immune system and molecular biology) guy.

Mr. Laz
07-09-2010, 07:57 PM
ebola ... that's it

AustinChief
07-09-2010, 08:00 PM
possibly; I can think of a few ways that they could stimulate an immune response that would elicit the antibody and antigen production of T and B memory cells (that would theoretically enable a person to be 'cured,' as their immune system would be able to fight any further lysogenic activations)I can see this being the eventual route this goes... but getting there could take another 5-10 years. Good news though.

AndChiefs
07-09-2010, 08:00 PM
Well this is bad news for the Chiefsplanet AIDS tree.

googlegoogle
07-09-2010, 08:42 PM
The two antibodies neutralized 91 percent of the 190 different HIV isolates that the team tested


Still not 100%. If that 9 percent spreads ?

Pioli Zombie
07-09-2010, 09:05 PM
Rats. Ellen DeGeneras, Rosie O'Donnell, Rachel Maddow, Neil Patrick Harris and Mr Sulu are still around.

doomy3
07-09-2010, 09:12 PM
I really hope a cure for cancer isn't far behind. That will be a great day.

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 09:32 PM
I really hope a cure for cancer isn't far behind. That will be a great day.

highly, HIGHLY unlikely. the best you can hope for in the chronic diseases (cancer being the most common) is treatment.

the issue with cancer is that we live much longer than we used to. at the turn of the 20th century (1899-1900) humans didn't live as long, thus heart disease, strokes, diabetes (dietary issues FTW) and cancer (which I'll touch on in a moment) were rare (and hard to diagnose, we've come a long way in medical science).

cancer comes down to mutations. cancer is really nothing more than a breakdown of (think of a cell/the cell cycle as a car) either the brake, gas pedal, or both. with enough mutations (which happen the older you get; telomeres shorten and mutations accumulate) the cell cycle can either be put into constant motion (constant cell division, aka cancer--this is the gas pedal that is broken and always on go) or the brake can be killed (proto-oncogenes such as p53 are mutated, which prevent the cell cycle from 'checking itself' at the key junctions that I won't get into here). as we get older, the odds of either of these greatly increase, and the likelyhood of BOTH happening go up greatly.

basically, cancer is a trade-off for longer lifespans. sure, we can get to a point where we can TREAT it more effectively (and prevent the types that kill us younger in life), but unless we're to literally do the impossible and give up our biology (genetics), it's physically impossible to completely rid ourselves of cancer.

there is no 'cure' for cancer and never will be. the longer we live, the more deleterious mutations add up.

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 09:35 PM
We already know you're a pompous jackass. Please give us the whole answer, I'm actually interested in what it had to say.

alright, rather than type out all of the jargon that's frankly a bit confusing even for ME sometimes (:p), I'll give you a link to a VERY informative site on the mammal immune system. highly recommend you read this if you have an interest--they missed a few areas of interest, but the ones they missed are really only important if you're an immunologist. GREAT overview.

http://nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html

Fish
07-09-2010, 09:40 PM
alright, rather than type out all of the jargon that's frankly a bit confusing even for ME sometimes (:p), I'll give you a link to a VERY informative site on the mammal immune system. highly recommend you read this if you have an interest--they missed a few areas of interest, but the ones they missed are really only important if you're an immunologist. GREAT overview.

http://nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html

The graphics on that page are just straight awesome.....

http://nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/images/detail/fig15_killert.gif

Ebolapox
07-09-2010, 09:43 PM
The graphics on that page are just straight awesome.....

http://nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/images/detail/fig15_killert.gif

ROFL

I know. I particularly enjoyed them. they're hokey, but effective.

Halfcan
07-09-2010, 10:46 PM
Magic Johson will live forever now.

JD10367
07-09-2010, 11:58 PM
the issue with cancer is that we live much longer than we used to . . . basically, cancer is a trade-off for longer lifespans. sure, we can get to a point where we can TREAT it more effectively (and prevent the types that kill us younger in life), but unless we're to literally do the impossible and give up our biology (genetics), it's physically impossible to completely rid ourselves of cancer.

Ayup. Not too long ago, hearing your doctor say the word "cancer" was a death sentence. And there are still plenty of very nasty variations which are quick-moving, inoperable, etc.,. But so much of it can be held at bay now, it's amazing. My parents are in their 70s. My mom has had colon cancer and some form of blood cancer; my dad has had prostate cancer and bladder cancer. And yet they keep chugging along; they go to the doctor, get radiation or pills or shots or parts cut out, and keep on going.

The_Doctor10
07-10-2010, 12:47 AM
The two antibodies neutralized 91 percent of the 190 different HIV isolates that the team tested


Still not 100%. If that 9 percent spreads ?

The other 91 percent is already spreading anyway. It's clearly not perfect, but it's a damn good step in the right direction.

The_Doctor10
07-10-2010, 12:52 AM
Rats. Ellen DeGeneras, Rosie O'Donnell, Rachel Maddow, Neil Patrick Harris and Mr Sulu are still around.

Nobody bit on your Jeff Garcia joke so you had to to current famous gay/lesbian people?

I don't know if you're paying attention, f*ckstick, but straight people get AIDS too. Also curious as to why you think AIDS has the same impact on the lesbian community as it does on the gay one. Unless you actually believe that an effective way to spread the HIV virus is by rugmunching. This can only lead me to conclude that you are in fact a horrible lover as a result of your cunnilingaphobia and rarely if ever receive a second invitation to pantytown. WHICH IN TURN explains why you're such an unlikeable dipshit here.

It all makes sense.

pr_capone
07-10-2010, 12:59 AM
Rats. Ellen DeGeneras, Rosie O'Donnell, Rachel Maddow, Neil Patrick Harris and Mr Sulu are still around.

My brother died of AIDS, straight as an arrow.

He just happened to be stabbed 37 times by crazy drugged up gf while he slept. Well, slept until the first stab anyhow.

He had the misfortune of receiving a tainted blood transfusion, this was early on in the AIDS scare. He went from 220lb of solid ripped up mass to a shade under 100lb when he died.

Nothing to fucking joke about.

/barely knew him, he died when I was a kid

Ebolapox
07-10-2010, 01:05 AM
My brother died of AIDS, straight as an arrow.

He just happened to be stabbed 37 times by crazy drugged up gf while he slept. Well, slept until the first stab anyhow.

He had the misfortune of receiving a tainted blood transfusion, this was early on in the AIDS scare. He went from 220lb of solid ripped up mass to a shade under 100lb when he died.

Nothing to fucking joke about.

/barely knew him, he died when I was a kid

there's a reason pioli zombie is at the bottom of the rep barrel. freaking troll.

sorry about your brother, man. regardless of how much you knew him, that's a tough loss (regardless of how long ago it was)