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04-09-2011, 11:32 PM

In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is an unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as a generalisation of the audible noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission. Signal noise is heard as acoustic noise if played through a loudspeaker; it manifests as 'snow' on a television or video image. Noise can block, distort, change or interfere with the meaning of a message in human, animal and electronic communication.
In signal processing or computing it can be considered unwanted data without meaning; that is, data that is not being used to transmit a signal, but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. "Signal-to-noise ratio" is sometimes used informally to refer to the ratio of useful information to false or irrelevant data in a conversation or exchange, such as off-topic posts and spam in online discussion forums and other online communities. In information theory, however, noise is still considered to be information.[citation needed] In a broader sense, film grain or even advertisements encountered while looking for something else can be considered noise. In biology, noise can describe the variability of a measurement around the mean, for example transcriptional noise describes the variability in gene activity between cells in a population.
In many of these areas, the special case of thermal noise arises, which sets a fundamental lower limit to what can be measured or signaled and is related to basic physical processes at the molecular level described by well-established thermodynamics considerations, some of which are expressible by simple formulae.

Subjective distinctions

Calling some signal or sound noise is often a subjective distinction. One person's maximum-volume music listening pleasure might be another's unbearable noise.

Regulation of acoustic noise

Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After a watershed passage of the U.S. Noise Control Act of 1972[1], the program was abandoned at the federal level, under President Ronald Reagan, in 1981 and the issue was left to local and state governments. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address (a) generally rising ambient noise (b) enforceable numerical source limits on aircraft and motor vehicles or (c) comprehensive directives to local government.

04-09-2011, 11:35 PM
The Noroton River is a 9.4-mile-long (15.1 km)<sup id="cite_ref-NHD_0-0" class="reference">[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noroton_River#cite_note-NHD-0)</sup> stream flowing into Holly Pond and forming most of the border between Stamford (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford,_Connecticut) and Darien (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darien,_Connecticut), Connecticut (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connecticut), USA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USA). The river's headwaters are in New Canaan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Canaan,_Connecticut), Connecticut. It is the largest flowing body of water between Mill River/Rippowam River (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rippowam_River) to the west and Five Mile River (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Mile_River) to the east, although Stony Brook and the Goodwives River in Darien are not much smaller.
Pollution runoff from Interstate 95 flows down the Noroton River into Holly Pond. In 2009, the Stamford and Darien local governments asked the federal government for an $11.7 million grant (to fund 65 percent of an $18 million project) for "dredging and ecosystem restoration" in the pond and river, including "construction of wetlands, bioswales and other restoration structures".<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference">[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noroton_River#cite_note-1)</sup>
Two restaurants are located at the mouth of the river, where U.S. Route 1 (known as the Boston Post Road on the Darien side and East Main Street on the Stamford side) crosses it. Both feature windows offering diners a view of the river.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="reference">[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noroton_River#cite_note-2)</sup> The restaurant on the north side is in Stamford. On the south side, the current Giovanni's II Steakhouse is the most recent business to occupy a lot where restaurants have been sited since the early 20th century.

04-09-2011, 11:35 PM
Cheetos are a brand of cheese curl made by Frito-Lay. They are technically known as a cheese-flavored cornmeal snack. Until the late 1990s-early 2000s, the brand name contained an interpunct (Chee·tos appeared on the packaging), but it has since been removed.


Main article: Cheese puffs
Cheetos are manufactured by blending corn and water. The mixture is heated under pressure, then extruded through a die. The texture of the snack is caused by contact with hot air, which causes steam in the mixture to expand, creating a bread-like snack. The traditional Crunchy Cheetos are fried. Puffs, Paws, Twists, Balls, and Whirls varieties are oven-dried. The snack is then tumbled with the desired flavor.
Cheetos mascot

Main article: Chester Cheetah
The Cheetos mascot is an anthropomorphic cartoon cheetah named Chester Cheetah.[5] Chester Cheetah first appeared in television commercials in 1983 as an animated cartoon character. After Chester's introduction, the sly, smooth-voiced cheetah began starring in more commercials and eventually became Cheetos’ official mascot. He used the slogan "It ain't easy bein' cheesy" in the late 1980s/early 1990s, then “The cheese that goes crunch!” until 1996, when it became “Dangerously cheesy!” In the 2000s, Chester Cheetah became rendered as a computer-generated character in the United States, while he continues to appear in his old animation style in other countries.
As of 2006, Cheetos has taken aim at an adult demographic. In this incarnation, Chester speaks with a mid-Atlantic accent and encourages people to use their Cheetos in acts of revenge or to solve problems. Two Chester Cheetah videogames, Chester Cheetah: Wild Wild Quest and Chester Cheetah: Too Cool to Fool, were released for home videogame consoles in the 1990s. They appeared on Sega Genesis and the Super Nintendo respectively.
Previous to Chester, Cheetos' mascot was a mouse called the Cheetos Mouse. He debuted in 1971. The Cheetos' Mouse's slogan was "Hail Chee-sar!" This was declared to be defunct after a decline in customer approval ratings.
International flavors

Cheetos Cheese n' Bacon Balls.
Cheetos Swiss Cheese Balls
Cheetos Requeijão Waves
Cheetos Parmigiano-Reggiano Moons
Crunchy Cheetos (1948–present)
Cheetos Puffs (1971–present)
Cheetos Bacon and Cheese Flavor (Crunchy) (early 1980s)
Cheetos Paws (1991–1994)
Cheetos Cheezy Checkers (1995–1999)
Flamin' Hot Cheetos (1990–present)
Crunchy Nacho Cheetos (1996–1998) (still available in eastern Canada)
Cheetos Zig-Zags (1999–2003)
Cheetos X's and O's (2000–2002)
Cheetos Puffs Twists (2003–present)
Cool Ranch Cheetos (begun and discontinued in 2003)
Baked Cheetos (2004–present)
Cheetos Pizza Puffs (begun and discontinued in 2005)
Cheetos Holiday Twists (2005–2006)
Cheddar Jalapeño Cheetos (2005–present)
Flamin' Hot Cheetos con Limon (2005–present)
Flamin' Hot Baked Cheetos (2005–present)
Cheetos Crunchy Twists (2006–present)
Natural Puffs White Cheddar
Cheetos Mighty Zingers (2010)
Cheetos Habanero (2010)
Xxxtra Flamin' Hot Cheetos (2010)
Crunchy Mozarella (2010)
BBQ Flavor
Turkey Flavor
Strawberry Flavor Puffs
Blueberry Flavor Puffs
Toffi Flavor (Limited short edition)
Cheetos Roasted Corn
Cheetos Grilled Chicken
Cheetos American Cheese
Cheetos Net BBQ
Cheetos Net Seaweed
Cheetos Twist Shots Roasted Corn
Cheetos Net Shots BBQ
Cheetos Net Shots Seaweed
Cheetos Net Shots Spicy Chicken
Masala Balls
Tangy Tomato
Tomato Twirls
Kosher, Ketchup Flavor
Peanut Flavor (peanut butter)
Pizza flavor
Strawberry Cheetos
Cheetos Gum
Cheetos Candy
Milk Chocolate Cheetos
Cheetos Torciditos
Cheetos Colmillitos
Cheetos Bolita
Cheetos Torciditos Flamin Hot
Cheetos Sorpresa (English: "surprise", includes a toy prize, usually tazos, in every bag).
Cheetos Bocaditos de Maiz, Sabor a Queso (cheese)[12] (2001-present).
Cheetos Bocaditos de Maiz, Sabor a Queso Picante (spicy cheese)[12] (2001-present).
Cheetos Sorpresa (English: "surprise", includes a toy prize, usually tazos, in every bag).
Cheetos Ketchup
Cheetos Cheese
Cheetos Pizzerini
Cheetos Spirals Cheese-Ketchup
Cheetos Spinner Cheese-Onion
Cheetos Chicken Leg (2009–2010)
Cheetos Hot Dog (2008–2010)
Cheetos Onion (Apr-June 2007)
Cheetos Zig Zag Hamburger (till 2007)
Chocolate Cheetos Deseros
Milk Cheetos Deseros
[edit]South Korea
Strawberry Cheetos
BBQ flavored Cheetos
Spicy flavored Cheetos
Spicy Chicken flavored Cheetos Balls
BBQ flavored puffs
Cheetos Queso (1980's?-)
Peanut Butter Cheetos
Steak Cheetos
Ketchup Cheetos
Corn Cheetos
Sweetos Cheetos (November 2009 / cocoa and milk filled)
Walkers Cheetos Dangerously Cheezy taken off sale in 2002
Walkers Wotsits
Crunchy Cheetos (1948–present)
Cheetos Puffs (1971–present)
Cheetos Bacon and Cheese Flavor (Crunchy) (early 1980s)
Cheetos Paws (1991–1994)
Cheetos Cheezy Checkers (1995–1999)
Flamin' Hot Cheetos (1996–present)
Crunchy Nacho Cheetos (1996–1998)
Cheetos Zig-Zags (1999–2003)
Flamin' Hot Cheetos Puffs (1999–2000, discontinued in 2000 and reintroduced in 2006, 2006–present)
Cheetos X's and O's (2000–2002)
Cheetos Twisted Puffs (2003–present)
Cool Ranch Cheetos (begun and discontinued in 2003)
Baked Cheetos (2004–present)
Cheetos Pizza Puffs (begun and discontinued in 2005)
Cheetos Holiday Twists (2005–2006)
Cheddar Jalapeño Cheetos (2005–present)
Flamin' Hot Cheetos con Limon (2005–present)
Fiery Hot Tamale Explosion Twists (2005-2006)
Flamin' Hot Baked Cheetos (2005–present)
Cheetos Crunchy Twists (2006–present)
Natural Puffs White Cheddar
Cheetos Mighty Zingers Ragin' Cajun and Tangy Ranch (2010)
Cheetos Mighty Zingers Sharp Cheddar and Salsa Picante (2010)
Cheetos Wild Habanero (2010)
Xxxtra Flamin' Hot Cheetos
Crunchy Mozarella
Giant Cheetos (2009-)
Cheetos Crunchy Cheesy Enchilada
Flamin' Hot Cheetos Balls
Extreme Baked Pizza Twirls
Wild Habanero
Cheesy Cheddar BBQ
Chester's Hot Fries
Cheetos Puffcorn Flamin Hot
Cheetos Popcorn Flamin Hot
Cheetos Mighty Zingers
Pork Enzymes

Some Frito-Lay brand seasoned products, including some flavors of Cheetos, contain pork enzymes in addition to herbs, cheese and other seasonings. Frito-Lay's web site states that they use enzymes from pigs (porcine enzymes) in some of their seasoned snack chip products to develop 'unique flavors'. The presence of pig-derived ingredients makes them haraam for Muslims to eat and treif for Jews.
Product promotions

PepsiCo has included prizes with licensed properties in packages of Cheetos throughout the years, including trading cards, stickers, and tazos. Sets of tazos found in Cheetos around the world include Bakugan Battle Brawlers (June-August 2009, India, five different package designs, set of 26 different tazos), Gormiti (2011, Spain, two different package designs, set of 50 tazos with stickers),

See also

Cheez Doodles

04-09-2011, 11:38 PM

Reception and legacy

Due to Charizard's appeal, it has been featured in lines of soft toys and action figures in the Pokémon franchise, made by Hasbro, and Tomy.[40] In 2004, the "Charizard Medium Plush" was part of a major recall of 13 plush toys due to a manufacturing fault where tips of needles were being found with the stuffing. This caused Tomy to replace the toys with compensation or replacements.[40] Charizard appears often in the Pokémon Trading Card Game, most notably in the series' initial release. Cards featuring the character have been stated to be the most desired of the series, quickly rising to high prices amongst collectors and retailers.[41][42] These cards overpowered and knocked out opponents in one hit.[43]
Described by the media as "a lean, ferocious, fire-breathing dragon [...] sleek, powerful, and utterly destructive", Charizard has been noted as one of the franchise's most popular characters.[44] Retailers have attributed the high sales of merchandise related to the character to the popularity of the character's dragon-like design with children.[41] Interviewed children have stated similar; they attributed its appeal to its "cool looking" appearance and associating the character with the concepts of stubbornness and power.[45][46][47] The book Rebuilding Attachments With Traumatized Children stated psychiatrists utilized the character as an empowered character traumatized children who were fans of the Pokémon series could relate to.[48] The book Pikachu's Global Adventure: The Rise and Fall of Pokémon cited Charizard as popular with older male children who tend to be drawn to "tough or scary" characters,[49] and compared the character's evolution from Charmander into Charizard with the loss of "cuteness" as one leaves childhood.[50]
In 2005, search engine Yahoo! reported Charizard as one of the top Pokémon-related web searches.[51] GamesRadar described Charizard as "hands-down one of the coolest Pokémon out there", heavily praising its character design and calling it "one of the coolest" designs of the entire series.[52][53] IGN editor "pokemonofthedaychick" called Charizard "certainly the most popular and perhaps the most well-balanced of any of the current starting Pokemon".[54] UGO.com described Charizard as a "winged, dragon-like creature" which is "able to breathe fire and smash opponents into red-tinged goo", but states that in Brawl it is "as slow as Bowser" and "lacks the coolness factor of Mario's arch-nemesis."[55]

04-09-2011, 11:38 PM
Aruba: The Tragic Untold Story of Natalee Holloway and Corruption in Paradise is an autobiographical (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobiography) true crime (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/True_crime) book by Dave Holloway (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dave_Holloway) about his experiences searching for his missing daughter Natalee Holloway (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natalee_Holloway), co-written with R. Stephanie Good and Larry Garrison (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larry_Garrison).<sup id="cite_ref-Library-of-Congress_0-0" class="reference">[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-Library-of-Congress-0)</sup> It was released on April 11, 2006 by the Thomas Nelson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Nelson_%28publisher%29) publishing company.<sup id="cite_ref-Garrison-PR_1-0" class="reference">[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-Garrison-PR-1)</sup>
<table id="toc" class="toc"> <tbody><tr> <td> Contents

[hide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#)]

1 Summary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#Summary)
2 Background (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#Background)
3 Reception (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#Reception)
4 See also (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#See_also)
5 References (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#References)
6 External links (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#External_links)

</td> </tr> </tbody></table> [edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise&action=edit&section=1)] Summary

The book covers Holloway's ongoing effort to locate his daughter Natalee, who disappeared during a high school graduation trip to Aruba (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba) in 2005. He details his experience following leads in crack houses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crack_house) and personally searching landfills (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landfill). He alleges corruption among the Aruba Police Force (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba_Police_Force),<sup id="cite_ref-Fox-20060411-corruption_2-0" class="reference">[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-Fox-20060411-corruption-2)</sup> recalling that they asked him how much money he had upon arrival on the island.<sup id="cite_ref-GMA-20060410_3-0" class="reference">[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-GMA-20060410-3)</sup>
I am a father who has no idea what has happened to his child. The questions run through my mind all day long. Is she dead? Is she being held captive somewhere? Is she crying out for me?
—Dave Holloway<sup id="cite_ref-ThomasNelson-Aruba_4-0" class="reference">[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-ThomasNelson-Aruba-4)</sup>
Holloway accused suspect Joran van der Sloot (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joran_van_der_Sloot) of repeatedly lying and believes that he is "guilty of something."<sup id="cite_ref-GMA-20060410_3-1" class="reference">[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aruba:_The_Tragic_Untold_Story_of_Natalee_Holloway_and_Corruption_in_Paradise#cite_note-GMA-20060410-3)</sup>

04-09-2011, 11:40 PM
Odessa is a city in Lafayette County, Missouri, United States. The population was 4,818 at the 2000 census.


Odessa is located at 38°59′49″N 93°57′18″W.[3]
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles (9.0 km²), all of it land.
Odessa is located roughly 45 minutes from downtown Kansas City, Missouri and about three hours from St. Louis, Missouri.

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 4,818 people, 1,887 households, and 1,290 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,381.7 people per square mile (533.0/km²). There were 2,011 housing units at an average density of 576.7/sq mi (222.5/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.09% White, 1.18% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.10% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population.
There were 1,887 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.6% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.07.
In the city the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 17.4% from 45 to 64, and 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $34,007, and the median income for a family was $40,000. Males had a median income of $35,476 versus $23,047 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,455. About 8.4% of families and 9.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.

Odessa is home of the Odessa R-7 School District. The school's mascot is the bulldog.

The City of Odessa is governed by six-member Board of Aldermen (City Council). Justin Murry is the Mayor. Mike Hayslip is the City Administrator.
Odessa is a Missouri "Fourth Class" city.
[edit]Notable residents

The composer H. Owen Reed was born in Odessa in 1910.
Joe C. Specker, Army sergeant and (posthumous) Medal of Honor recipient in World War II.
Actor Holmes Osborne is a graduate of Odessa High School.
Emily Hedicke is a lifeguard on Hole in the Wall.
Gymnast Terin Humphrey, who won an individual silver medal on the uneven bars, and another silver with the US women's team in the all-around competition at the 2004 Olympics in Athens, is a graduate of Odessa High School.
Oakland Athletics' pitcher Brad Ziegler, who made his major-league debut in May 2008, is a graduate of Odessa High School.
Dean Vogelaar, past Vice-President and Director of Public Relations for the Kansas City Royals, is a graduate of Odessa High School.
[edit]Notable businesses

I-70 Speedway
Odessa Shopping Center

04-09-2011, 11:40 PM
Pillow Fight

A pillow fight is a common game mostly played by young children (but can also occur with teens and adults) in which they engage in mock physical conflict, utilizing pillows as weapons.

Many times pillow fights occur during children's sleepovers. Since pillows are soft, injuries rarely occur. The heft of a pillow can still knock a young person off balance, especially on a soft surface such as a bed, which is a common venue. A useful technique in a pillow fight is to bundle the nibs.[clarification needed] In earlier eras, pillows would often break, shedding feathers throughout a room. Modern pillows tend to be stronger and are often filled with a solid block of artificial filling, so breakage occurs far less frequently. An organized pillow fight will usually feature feathers due to its traditional value.

* 1 Organized pillow fights
* 2 "Pillow fight" in Japan
* 3 See also
* 4 References
* 5 External links

[edit] Organized pillow fights

Pillow fighting became part of flash mob culture with pillow fight flash mobs popping up in cities around the world.

It is also one of the match types among women wrestlers called Divas in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE). Most often, this type of match is booked as a Lingerie Pillow Fight, in which the women "compete" in lingerie and little or no actual wrestling takes place but feathers in the pillows were sometimes shedding from place to place.

In January 2007, Reuters reported that a Pillow Fight League was operating in bars in Toronto.[1] Pre-selected female "fighters" with stage personalities are paid small amounts to stage regular, unscripted fights. The rules call for "no lewd behavior, and moves such as leg drops or submission holds are allowed as long as a pillow is used".

Students at Columbia University have incorporated a Spring Pillow Fight into the spring semester version of their bi-annual primal scream tradition.[2] Students run into the center of campus screaming and pillow fighting on midnight of the Sunday of finals week as a way to relieve stress. Feathers in the pillows were sometimes shedding from place to place.

The Guinness World Record for the largest pillow fight was set on November 14, 2008, at Butlins in Minehead, Somerset, England,[3] headlined by former X Factor singer Chico Slimani. The previous record was beaten by 58 people, with 3,706 people all fighting at once, a spokesman for the Guinness Book of Records said.

Latest pillow fighting was operating in Berlin.[4]
[edit] "

Hammock Parties
04-09-2011, 11:40 PM
Christian side hug (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_side_hug)

Origin of the term

Side hugging for religious reasons was first labeled the "Christian side hug" in a rap song written by Ryan Pann of California.[1] The song was performed as a skit at the 2009 Encounter Generation evangelical youth conference (EG), hosted by The Fathers House church in Vacaville, CA.[2] The song's lyrics state that attendees will be sent home if they "front hug," so they should opt for the "Christian side hug" instead. The song's video, which has become somewhat of an internet joke, includes gunshot sounds, sirens, and performers dressed like street thugs.[3]

Pann has said the song was satirizing the Christian habit of side hugging,[1] but another mock rap video from the conference reinforces the Christian Side Hug song's message,[4] making it clear that organizers were serious about keeping physical interactions to a minimum. The list of EG conference rules also includes a ban on public displays of affection.[5]

The Christian side hug within the abstinence movement

EG is not the only religious youth organization to encourage side hugs over front hugs, with Brio magazine (published by Focus on the Family), advising readers to refrain from front hugging members of the opposite sex as far back as 2007.[6] Also, rules against front hugging are part of at least some youth leader employment agreements.[7]

04-09-2011, 11:41 PM
An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the author, who is called the affiant or deponent, and witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths. The name is Medieval Latin for he has declared upon oath. An affidavit is a type of verified statement or showing, or in other words, it contains a verification, meaning it is under oath or penalty of perjury, and this serves as evidence to its veracity and is required for court proceedings. Not all affidavits require a notary public for execution.
Uses of affidavits include: the court, the government, or who may otherwise fear for their safety if their true identities are revealed in court.
To obtain a declaration on a legal document, such as an application for voter registration, that the information provided by the applicant is truthful to the best of the applicant's knowledge. If, after signing such a declaration, the information is found to be deliberately untrue with the intent to deceive, the applicant may face perjury charges.
Affidavits may be written in the first or third person, depending on who drafted the document. If in the first person, the document's component parts are:
a commencement which identifies the affiant;
the individual averments, almost always numbered as mandated by law, each one making a separate claim;
a statement of truth[1] generally stating that everything is true, under penalty of perjury, fine, or imprisonment;
an attestation clause, usually a jurat, at the end certifying the affiant made oath and the date; and
signatures of the author and witness.
If an affidavit is notarized or authenticated, it will also include a caption with a venue and title in reference to judicial proceedings. In some cases, an introductory clause, called a preamble, is added attesting that the affiant personally appeared before the authenticating authority.

04-09-2011, 11:41 PM
Randomness has somewhat disparate meanings as used in several different fields. It also has common meanings which may have loose connections with some of those more definite meanings. The Oxford English Dictionary defines "random" thus:

Having no definite aim or purpose; not sent or guided in a particular direction; made, done, occurring, etc., without method or conscious choice; haphazard.

Closely connected, therefore, with the concepts of chance, probability, and information entropy, randomness implies a lack of predictability. Randomness is a concept of non-order or non-coherence in a sequence of symbols or steps, such that there is no intelligible pattern or combination.

The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In mathematics, a random variable is a way to assign a value to each possible outcome of an event. In probability and statistics, a random process is a repeating process whose outcomes follow no describable deterministic pattern, but follow a probability distribution, such that the relative probability of the occurrence of each outcome can be approximated or calculated. For example, the rolling of a fair six-sided die in neutral conditions may be said to produce random results, because one cannot know, before a roll, what number will show up. However, the probability of rolling any one of the six rollable numbers can be calculated.

The term is often used in statistics to signify well-defined statistical properties, such as a lack of bias or correlation. Monte Carlo Methods, which rely on random input, are important techniques in science, as, for instance, in computational science.[1] Random selection is an official method to resolve tied elections in some jurisdictions[2] and is even an ancient method of divination, as in tarot, the I Ching, and bibliomancy. Its use in politics is very old, as office holders in Ancient Athens were chosen by lot, there being no voting.

04-09-2011, 11:41 PM

In biology, noise can describe the variability of a measurement around the mean, for example transcriptional noise describes the variability in gene activity between cells in a population.

Surprised to see this here. This is my main research area, but I wouldn't expect to see it in a wikipedia article on noise. It's not a huge research area either.

04-09-2011, 11:41 PM
Deer penis
In traditional Chinese medicine, a deer penis (Chinese: 鹿鞭) is said to have important therapeutic properties. Deer penis and powdered deer penis is commonly sold in Chinese pharmacies. Like turtle's blood and penis, deer penis is also popular in Taiwan and is one of the "delicacies" served in large jars in Snake Alley, Taipei.[1] It is also served on the Chinese mainland in restaurants such as the Guo Li Zhuang.[2]
The deer penis is typically very large and, proponents claim, for it to retain its properties it must be extracted from the deer whilst still alive.[3] Often it is then sliced into small pieces, typically by women and then roasted and dried in the sun and then preserved while the deer looks on.[3][4]
The tradition of consuming the penis of the animal is not just related to Chinese history. The ancient Romans were known to consume the anatomy of a number of different animals for their purported health benefits.[5] The Mayans were also known to extract the penis of the deer and to roast it.[6]Hippocrates recommended consuming deer penis to resolve sexual difficulties.[5]
During the 2008 Summer Olympics, the country banned deer penis, turtle blood, and angelica root potions from athletes' diets.[7] This is because according to traditional Chinese medicine, deer penis, especially if ingested while soaked in alcohol (deer penis wine), is an effective remedy for athletic injuries. Chinese Olympic officials advised national athletes not to take the traditional remedy because it may contain some banned substances like the stimulant herbal ephedrine. It joined steroids and amphetamines on the list of banned substances. The penis of a deer or tiger when consumed is also said to enhance male virility and is an aphrodisiac.[8]
Deer penis wine can be sold at $12 a glass and often as high as $450 for a two litre bottle.[9] Deer-antler wine, known as Lurongjiu, is also said to enhance sexual potency in men and to have a warming effect, aiding the joints.[3][10] The penis of a deer, turtle or bull is also consumed in restaurants and in Singapore is known to also be offered as a soup delicacy.[9] In Angang, Taiwan, women are reported as consuming deer penis during pregnancy as it is said to have a fattening effect and to make the mother and child stronger.[3]

04-09-2011, 11:43 PM

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the word fart itself. For information on the bodily function of passing intestinal gas (flatus) via the anus, see Flatulence. For other uses, see FART.
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Fart is an English language vulgarism most commonly used in reference to flatulence. The word "fart" is generally considered unsuitable in a formal environment by modern English speakers, and it may be considered vulgar or offensive in some situations. Fart can be used as a noun or a verb.[1] The immediate roots are in the Middle English words ferten, feortan or farten; which is akin to the Old High German word ferzan. Cognates are found in old Norse, Slavic and also Greek and Sanskrit. The word "fart" has been incorporated into the colloquial and technical speech of a number of occupations, including computing.

Fart is sometimes used as a non-specific derogatory epithet, often to refer to 'an irritating or foolish person', and potentially an elderly person, described as an 'old fart'. This may be taken as an insult when used in the second or third person, but can potentially be a term of endearment, or an example of self deprecatory humour when used in the first person.[2] The phrase 'boring old fart' was popularised in the United Kingdom in the late 1970s by the New Musical Express while chronicling the rise of punk. It was used to describe hippies and establishment figures in the music industry, forces of inertia against the new music.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Vulgarity and offensiveness
o 2.1 Historical examples
o 2.2 Modern usage
o 2.3 Society and culture
* 3 In other usage
o 3.1 As a verb phrase
o 3.2 As a lapse in concentration
o 3.3 Other usages
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 External links


The English word fart is one of the oldest words in the English vocabulary. Its Indo-European origins are confirmed by the many cognate words in other Indo-European languages: It is cognate with Greek πέρδομαι (perdomai), Latin pēdĕre, Sanskrit pardate, Avestan pərəδaiti, French "péter", Russian пердеть (perdet') and Polish "pierd" << PIE *perd [break wind loudly] or *pezd [the same, softly], all of which mean the same thing. Like most Indo-European roots in the Germanic languages, it was altered by Grimm's law, so that Indo-European /p/ > /f/, and /d/ > /t/, as the German cognate furzen also manifests.[3][4][5]
Vulgarity and offensiveness
German peasants greet the fire and brimstone from a papal bull of Pope Paul III in Martin Luther's 1545 Depictions of the Papacy.

In certain circles the word is considered merely a common profanity with an often humorous connotation. For example, a person may be referred to as a 'fart', or an 'old fart', not necessarily depending on the person's age. This may convey the sense that a person is boring or overly fussy and be intended as an insult, mainly when used in the second or third person. For example '"he's a boring old fart!" However the word may be used as a colloquial term of endearment or in an attempt at humorous self-deprecation (e.g., in such phrases as "I know I'm just an old fart" or "you do like to fart about!"). 'Fart' is often only used as a term of endearment when the subject is personally well known to the user. In both cases though, it tends to refer to personal habits or traits that the user considers to be a negative feature of the subject, even when it is a self-reference. For example, when concerned that a person is being overly methodical they might say 'I know I'm being an old fart', potentially to forestall negative thoughts and opinions in others. When used in an attempt to be offensive, the word is still considered vulgar, but it remains a mild example of such an insult. This usage dates back to the Medieval period, where the phrase 'not worth a fart' would be applied to an item held to be worthless.[6]
Historical examples

The word fart in Middle English occurs in "Sumer Is Icumen In", where one sign of summer is "bucke uerteþ" (the buck farts). It appears in several of Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. In "The Miller's Tale", Absolon has already been tricked into kissing Alison's buttocks when he is expecting to kiss her face. Her boyfriend Nicholas hangs his buttocks out of a window, hoping to trick Absolon into kissing his buttocks in turn and then passes gas in the face of his rival. In "The Summoner's Tale", the friars in the story are to receive the smell of a fart through a twelve spoked wheel.

In the early-modern period, the word fart was not considered especially vulgar; it even surfaced in literary works. For example, Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, published in 1755, included the word. Johnson defined it with two poems, one by Jonathan Swift, the other by Sir John Suckling.[7][8] In 1607, a group of Members of Parliament had written a ribald poem entitled The Parliament Fart, as a symbolic protest against the conservatism of the House of Lords and the king, James I.[9][10]
Modern usage

By the early twentieth century, the word "fart" had come to be considered rather vulgar in most English-speaking cultures. While not one of George Carlin's original seven dirty words, he noted in a later routine that the word fart , ought to be added to "the list" of words that were not acceptable (for broadcast) in any context (which have non-offensive meanings), and described television as (then) a "fart-free zone".[11] Thomas Wolfe had the phrase 'a fizzing and sulphuric fart' cut out of his 1929 work Look Homeward, Angel by his publisher. Ernest Hemingway, who had the same publisher, accepted the principle that fart could be cut, on the grounds that no one should use words only to shock.[12] The hippie movement in the 1970s saw a new definition develop, with the use of fart as a personal noun, to describe a 'detestable person, or someone of small stature or limited mental capacity', gaining wider and more open usage as a result.[13]

Rhyming slang developed the alternative form 'Raspberry Tart', later shortened to 'Raspberry', and occasionally 'Razz'. This was associated with the phrase 'blowing a raspberry'.[14] The word has become more prevalent, and now features in children's literature, such as the Walter the Farting Dog series of children's books, Robert Munsch's Good Families Don't and The Gas We Pass by Shinta Cho. Teachers in American schools have been encouraged to use books about farts to make children more comfortable with the word.[15]

According to The Alphabet of Manliness, the assigning of blame for farting is part of a ritual of behaviour. This may involve deception and a back and forth rhyming game.[16]
Society and culture

On 28 January 2011 it was reported[17] that breaking wind is set to be made a crime in Malawi, and the government of that country plans to punish persistent offenders. That crime and others will be enforceable in a new 'Local Court' system in a bill soon to be debated in the country's parliament.

The Whoopee cushion is a joking device invented in the early 20th century for simulating a fart.
In other usage
As a verb phrase

Following on from 'fart' being used to refer to an irritating or foolish person, the verb phrase 'fart around', meaning to spend time foolishly or aimlessly is also utilised. Again this can be in a humorous attempt at a term of endearment, or as an insult.[1] The implication is that the person is being a 'fart', and otherwise is wasting time, or achieving little.
As a lapse in concentration

The term 'brain fart', often used as a synonym for a 'senior moment', or a momentary lapse in concentration or occurrence of forgetfulness, such as an Absence seizure. It is a more modern usage, similar in derivation to the term fart to denote uselessness or a period of low achievement. In some cases, particularly the corporate world, it may be used to describe a situation where a person has spoken out of turn to a superior figure. This usage implies a momentary lack of forethought and a break in good sense, which may be colloquially explained away as the result of a 'brain fart'.[18]
Other usages

Fart has been used to name cocktails, an example being a 'Duck fart', playing on the humorous reference to flatulence—an example of toilet humour.[19] It has also been used in the term 'fart sack', military slang for a bed or sleeping bag.[20] A 'nun's fart' is a French term for a type of sweet dessert sprinkled with sugar.[21

04-09-2011, 11:43 PM

The name "alternative rock" essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mid-1980s.[12] Throughout much of its history, alternative rock has been largely defined by its rejection of the commercialism of mainstream culture. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in small clubs, recorded for indie labels, and spread their popularity through word of mouth.[13] As such, there is no set musical style for alternative rock as a whole, although The New York Times in 1989 asserted that the genre is "guitar music first of all, with guitars that blast out power chords, pick out chiming riffs, buzz with fuzztone and squeal in feedback."[14] Sounds range from the dirty guitars of grunge to the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitar pop revivalism of Britpop to the shambolic performance style of twee pop. More often than in other rock styles since the mainstreaming of rock music during the 1970s, alternative rock lyrics tend to address topics of social concern, such as drug use, depression, and environmentalism.[13] This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s and early 1990s.[15]

04-09-2011, 11:44 PM
Prostitution is the act or practice of providing sexual services to another person in return for payment. People who execute such activities are called prostitutes. Prostitution is one of the branches of the sex industry. The legal status of prostitution varies from country to country, from being a punishable crime to a regulated profession. Estimates place the annual revenue generated from the global prostitution industry to be over $100 billion.[1]

Prostitution occurs in a variety of forms. Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution. In escort prostitution, the act takes place at the customer's residence or hotel room (referred to as out-call), or at the escort's residence or in a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort (called in-call). Another form is street prostitution. Sex tourism refers to travelling, typically from developed to under-developed nations, to engage in sexual activity with prostitutes.

Etymology and terminology

"To prostitute" is derived from a composition of two Latin words: (preposition) pro and (verb) statuere. A literal translation therefore would be: "to expose", "to place up front".
The Procuress by Dirck van Baburen (1622)

A variety of terms are used for those who engage in prostitution, some of which distinguish between different kinds or imply a value judgment about them. Common alternatives for prostitute include escort and whore; however, not all professional escorts are prostitutes.

The English word whore derives from the Old English word hōra, from the Indo-European root kā meaning "desire". Use of the word whore is widely considered pejorative, especially in its modern slang form of ho'. In Germany most prostitutes' organizations deliberately use the word Hure (whore) since they feel that prostitute is a bureaucratic term. Those seeking to remove the social stigma associated with prostitution often promote terminology such as sex worker, commercial sex worker (CSW), "tantric engineer" (coined by author Robert Anton Wilson), or sex trade worker. A hooker[2][3] or streetwalker solicits customers in public places; a call girl makes appointments by phone.

Correctly or not, prostitute without specifying a sex is commonly assumed to be female; compound terms such as male prostitution or male escort are therefore used to identify males. Those offering services to female customers are commonly known as gigolos; those offering services to male customers are hustlers or rent boys.

Organizers of prostitution are typically known as pimps (if male) and madams or Mama-san (if female). More formally, they practice procuring, and are procurers, or procuresses.

The customers of prostitutes are known as johns or tricks in North America and punters in the British Isles. These slang terms are used among both prostitutes and law enforcement for persons who solicit prostitutes.[4] The term john may have originated from the customer practice of giving their name as "John", a common name in English-speaking countries, in an effort to maintain anonymity. In some places, men who drive around red-light districts for the purpose of soliciting prostitutes are also known as kerb crawlers.

04-09-2011, 11:46 PM
ODESSA, (from the German Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, “Organization for Former SS Members”) is believed to have been an international Nazi network set up toward the end of World War II by a group of SS officers. The purpose of ODESSA was to establish and facilitate secret escape routes, later known as ratlines, to allow SS members to avoid their capture and prosecution for war crimes. Most of those fleeing out of Germany and Austria were helped to South America and the Middle East.

Several authoritative books by those involved in the War Crimes Commission (including T.H. Tetens and Joseph Wechsberg) have verified the organization's existence and provided details of its operations. Wechsberg studied Simon Wiesenthal's memoirs on ODESSA and verified them with his own experiences in the book The Murderers Among Us.

In a note, persons claiming to represent ODESSA claimed responsibility for a 9 July 1979 car bombing in France, which was aimed at anti-Nazi activists Serge and Beate Klarsfeld.[citation needed]

In the realm of fiction, the Frederick Forsyth best-selling 1972 thriller The Odessa File brought the organization to popular attention (the novel was turned into a film starring Jon Voight). In the novel, Forsyth's ODESSA smuggled war criminals to Latin America, but also attempted to protect those SS members who remained behind in Germany, and plotted to influence political decisions in West Germany.

* 1 History
* 2 Trivia
* 3 See also
* 4 Notes
* 5 References
* 6 External links

[edit] History

According to Simon Wiesenthal, ODESSA was set up in 1946 to aid fugitive Nazis. Interviews by the ZDF German TV station with former SS men suggest instead that ODESSA was never the single world-wide secret organization that Wiesenthal described, but several organizations, both overt and covert (including several Latin American governments and an Italy-based network of Catholic clerics), that helped ex-SS men. The truth may have been obscured by antagonism between the Wiesenthal organization and German military intelligence.

Long before the ZDF TV network, historian Gitta Sereny wrote in her 1974 book Into That Darkness, based on interviews with the former commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp, Franz Stangl (see References following), that ODESSA had never existed. She wrote: "The prosecutors at the Ludwigsburg Central Authority for the Investigation into Nazi Crimes, who know precisely how the postwar lives of certain individuals now living in South America have been financed, have searched all their thousands of documents from beginning to end, but say they are totally unable to authenticate (the) 'Odessa.' Not that this matters greatly: there certainly were various kinds of Nazi aid organizations after the war — it would have been astonishing if there hadn't been."[1]

This view is supported by Guy Walters in his book "Hunting Evil", where he also points out that networks were used, but there wasn't such a thing as a setup network covering Europe and South America, with an alleged war treasure. For Walters, the reports received by the allied intelligence services during the mid 1940s suggest that the appellation "ODESSA" was "little more than a catch-all term use by former Nazis who wished to continue the fight".[2]

However, while Nazi concentration camp supervisors denied the existence of ODESSA, neither US War Crimes Commission reports nor American OSS officials did. In interviews of outspoken German anti-Nazis by Joseph Wechsberg, former American OSS officer and member of the US War Crimes Commission, it was verified that plans were made for a Fourth Reich before the fall of the Third,[3] and that this was to be implemented by reorganizing in remote Nazi colonies overseas: "The Nazis decided that the time had come to set up a world-wide clandestine escape network."[4] "They used Germans who had been hired to drive U.S. Army trucks on the autobahn between Munich and Salzburg for the 'Stars and Stripes', the American Army newspaper. The couriers had applied for their jobs under false names, and the Americans in Munich had failed to check them carefully... ODESSA was organized as a thorough, efficient network... Anlaufstellen (ports of call) were set up along the entire Austrian-German border... In Lindau, close to both Austria and Switzerland, ODESSA set up an 'export-import' company with representatives in Cairo and Damascus."[4]

In his interviews with Sereny, Stangl denied any knowledge of a group called ODESSA. Recent biographies of Adolf Eichmann, who also escaped to South America, and Heinrich Himmler, the alleged founder of ODESSA, made no reference to such an organization. Notorious Auschwitz doctor Josef Mengele also escaped to South America.[5]

Sereny attributed the fact that SS members could escape to postwar chaos and the inability of the Roman Catholic Church, the Red Cross, and the American military to verify the claims of people who came to them for help, rather than to the activities of an underground Nazi organisation. She identified a Vatican official, Bishop Aloïs Hudal, not former SS men, as the principal agent in helping Nazis leave Italy for South America.

Argentine writer Uki Goñi, in his 2002 book The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón’s Argentina suggested that Sereny’s more complex, and less conspiratorial, story was closer to the truth. In 1938, on the verge of World War II, and with Hitler’s policies on Jews in transit, Argentina’s government sanctioned an immigration law restricting access by any individual scorned or forsaken by his country’s government. This law was alleged to have implicitly targeted Jews and other minorities fleeing Germany at the time, and was denounced by Uki Goñi, who admits that his own grandfather had participated in upholding it. Between 1930 and 1949, however, Argentina took in more Jewish refugees per capita than any other nation in the world, with the exception of Israel. Dr. Leonardo Senkman of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem says: "the reopening of post-war European emigration to Argentina during the first Peron Presidency in 1946 pushed up the net immigration figure to 463,456 persons between 1947 and 1951..." the highest in thirty years.[6] The legislation, though already in disuse for many years, was repealed on 8 June 2005 as a symbolic act. The Jewish Virtual Library writes that while Juan Perón had sympathized with the Axis powers, "Perón also expressed sympathy for Jewish rights and established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1949. Since then, more than 45,000 Jews have emigrated to Israel from Argentina."[7]

Of particular importance in examining the postwar activities of high-ranking Nazis was Paul Manning's book Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile which detailed Bormann's rise to power through the Nazi Party and as Hitler's Chief of Staff. During the war, Manning himself was a correspondent for the fledgling CBS News, along with Edward R. Murrow and Walter Cronkite in London, and his reporting and subsequent researches presented Bormann's cunning and skill in the organization and planning for the flight of Nazi-controlled capital from Europe during the last years of the war—notwithstanding the strong possibility of Bormann's death in Berlin on May 1, 1945, especially in light of DNA identification of skeletal remains unearthed near the Lehrter Bahnhof as Bormann's.

According to Manning, "eventually, over 10,000 former German military made it to South America along escape routes set up by ODESSA and the Deutsche Hilfsverein..." (page 181). ODESSA itself was incidental, says Manning, with the continuing existence of the Bormann Organization a much larger and more menacing fact. None of this had yet been convincingly proven

04-09-2011, 11:47 PM
I'm quite sure that none of these posts but mine are actually random.

04-09-2011, 11:48 PM
tl:dr to all of you.

04-09-2011, 11:49 PM
Cracker (pejorative)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Cracker, sometimes white cracker, is a pejorative term for poor white people.[1] It is especially used for the white inhabitants of the U.S. states of Georgia and Florida (Georgia crackers and Florida crackers), but it is also used throughout the Southern United States and more widely in North America.

* 1 Etymology
* 2 Examples of historical usage
* 3 Examples of politicians
* 4 See also
* 5 References
o 5.1 Further reading
* 6 External links

[edit] Etymology

One theory holds that the term comes from the common diet of poor whites. According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, it is a term of contempt for the "poor" or "mean whites," particularly of the U.S. states of Georgia and Florida (see Georgia cracker and Florida cracker). Britannica notes that the term dates back to the American Revolution, and is derived from the cracked corn which formed their staple food.[2] (In British English "mean" is also a term for tightfistedness,[3] although in this context that is irrelevant as mean also refers to being ignoble or inferior[4]).

Yet another theory[citation needed] is that the term derives from an Elizabethan word used to describe braggarts. The original root of this is the Middle English word crack meaning "entertaining conversation" (one may be said to "crack" a joke); this term and the Gaelic spelling craic are still in use in Ireland, Scotland and Northern England. It is documented in Shakespeare's King John (1595): "What cracker is this same that deafs our ears with this abundance of superfluous breath?"

Yet another theory is that the term derives from the sound of a whip being cracked by slave owners, or because crackers are generally white in color.
[edit] Examples of historical usage

Historically the word suggested poor, white rural Americans with little formal education. Historians point out the term originally referred to the strong Scots-Irish of the back country (as opposed to the English of the seacoast). Thus a sociologist reported in 1913: "As the plantations expanded these freed men (formerly bond servants) were pushed further and further back upon the more and more sterile soil. They became 'pinelanders', 'corn-crackers', or 'crackers'."[5]

As early as the 1760s, this term was in use by the English in the British North American colonies to refer to Scots-Irish settlers in the south. A letter to the Earl of Dartmouth reads:

I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their places of abode.

A similar usage was that of Charles Darwin in his introduction to The Origin of Species, to refer to "Virginia squatters" (illegal settlers).[6]
Georgia Cracker label depicting a boy with peaches

Frederick Law Olmsted, a prominent landscape architect from Connecticut, visited the South as a journalist in the 1850s and wrote that "some crackers owned a good many Negroes, and were by no means so poor as their appearance indicated."[7]

In 1947, the student body of Florida State University voted for the name of their current athletic symbol of "Seminoles," out of more than 100 choices. The other finalists, in order of finish, were Statesmen, Rebels, Tarpons, Fighting Warriors, and Crackers.[8][9]

Crackin' Good Snacks (a division of Winn-Dixie, a Southern grocery chain) has sold crackers similar to Ritz crackers under the name "Georgia Crackers". They sometimes were packaged in a red tin with a picture of The Crescent, an antebellum plantation house in Valdosta, Georgia.

"Cracker" has also been used as a proud or jocular self-description. With the huge influx of new residents from the North, "cracker" is used informally by some white residents of Florida and Georgia ("Florida cracker" or "Georgia cracker") to indicate that their family has lived there for many generations. However, the term "white cracker" is not always used self-referentially and remains a racist term to many in the region.[10]

Before the Milwaukee Braves baseball team moved to Atlanta, Georgia, the Atlanta minor league baseball team was known as the "Atlanta Crackers". The team existed under this name from 1901 until 1965. They were members of the Southern Association from their inception until 1961, and members of the International League from 1961 until they were moved to Richmond, Virginia in 1965. However, it is suggested the name was derived from players "cracking" the baseball bat and this origin makes sense when considering the Atlanta Negro League Baseball team was known as the "Atlanta Black Crackers".

The Florida Cracker Trail is a route which cuts across southern Florida, following the historic trail of the old cattle drives.
[edit] Examples of politicians

In 2008, former President Bill Clinton used the term "cracker" on Larry King Live to describe white voters he was attempting to win over for Barack Obama: "You know, they think that because of who I am and where my politic[al] base has traditionally been, they may want me to go sort of hustle up what Lawton Chiles used to call the 'cracker vote' there."[11] Singer-songwriter Randy Newman, on his socio-politically themed album Good Old Boys (1974) uses the term "cracker" on the song "Kingfish" ("I'm a cracker, You one too, Gonna take good care of you"). The song's subject is Huey Long, populist Governor and then Senator for Louisiana (1928–35). The term is also used in "Louisiana 1927" from the same album, where the line "Ain't it a shame what the river has done to this poor cracker's land" is attributed to President Coolidge

04-09-2011, 11:51 PM
erminology and slang

There are many words describing oral sex, including euphemisms and slang. Like all aspects of sexuality, there exists a very large number of variations on a theme, a few common ones are given here:
Giving head – A common slang term for giving oral sex to either a man or woman is "giving head", from the term "head job" (in contrast to "hand job", manual stimulation). A play on the slang term "head" resulted in the slang term "brains", or "brain salad surgery", "domes" or "getting domes."[35]
Plate – A once common British rhyming slang for "fellate" that arose in the gay slang language of Polari that spread in the 1960s. The term is less common today.[36][dead link]
Cunnilingus is also sometimes referred to as "muff diving", "eating out" or "poon-job", a slang term and a cunnilingus variant of "blow job", where "poon" is short for poontang or punani.
Additionally, in lesbian culture several common slang terms used are "carpet munching", "giving lip", "lip service" or "tipping the velvet" (a faux-"Victorian" expression invented by novelist Sarah Waters).
Additional slang terms for oral sex include "going down on" (female and male), "licking out" (female), "blow job" (male), "dome" (female and male)[35] ", "sucking off" (male), "playing the skin flute" (male recipient), "rolling cigars" (male recipient), "lolly-gagging" (gay male-on-male), "gaining knowledge" (male recipient) and "bust down" (male).
Forced fellatio is often called "Egyptian Rape" or simply "Egyptian". This goes back to the time of the Crusades when Mamluks were alleged to force their Christian captives to do this.

04-09-2011, 11:52 PM
erminology and slang

There are many words describing oral sex, including euphemisms and slang. Like all aspects of sexuality, there exists a very large number of variations on a theme, a few common ones are given here:
Giving head – A common slang term for giving oral sex to either a man or woman is "giving head", from the term "head job" (in contrast to "hand job", manual stimulation). A play on the slang term "head" resulted in the slang term "brains", or "brain salad surgery", "domes" or "getting domes."[35]
Plate – A once common British rhyming slang for "fellate" that arose in the gay slang language of Polari that spread in the 1960s. The term is less common today.[36][dead link]
Cunnilingus is also sometimes referred to as "muff diving", "eating out" or "poon-job", a slang term and a cunnilingus variant of "blow job", where "poon" is short for poontang or punani.
Additionally, in lesbian culture several common slang terms used are "carpet munching", "giving lip", "lip service" or "tipping the velvet" (a faux-"Victorian" expression invented by novelist Sarah Waters).
Additional slang terms for oral sex include "going down on" (female and male), "licking out" (female), "blow job" (male), "dome" (female and male)[35] ", "sucking off" (male), "playing the skin flute" (male recipient), "rolling cigars" (male recipient), "lolly-gagging" (gay male-on-male), "gaining knowledge" (male recipient) and "bust down" (male).
Forced fellatio is often called "Egyptian Rape" or simply "Egyptian". This goes back to the time of the Crusades when Mamluks were alleged to force their Christian captives to do this.

04-09-2011, 11:52 PM
random, just for you reaper

Polystichum vestitum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prickly Shield Fern

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pteridophyta
Class: Pteridopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Family: Dryopteridaceae
Genus: Polystichum
Species: P. vestitum
Binomial name
Polystichum vestitum
(G.Forst.) C.Presl[1]
Polypodium vestitum G.Forst.
Aspidium vestitum (G.Forst.) Sw.
Polystichum venustum Hombr.
Aspidium venustum (Hombr.) Hook.f.
Polystichum vestitum, commonly known as the Prickly Shield Fern, is a hardy, evergreen or semi-evergreen ground fern.
Contents [hide]
1 Description
2 Distribution and habitat
2.1 Macquarie Island
3 References
3.1 Notes
3.2 Sources

Polystichum vestitum is a terrestrial fern with an erect and scaly rhizome, sometimes forming a short trunk and growing up to 700 mm in height. The fronds are 220–600 mm long. There are 3–7 (usually 5) round sori on each pinnule, halfway between the margin and midrib, with a light brown indusium.[2]
Distribution and habitat

The fern is native to the three principal islands of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands, as well as to New Zealand’s subantarctic Snares, Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands, and to Australia’s Macquarie Island.[2]
Macquarie Island
On Macquarie it dominates the fernbrake communities which typically occur on the eastern, leeward side of the island on valley slopes and sheltered valley floors. Although it can form dense stands in which few other plants will grow, more commonly it is found in conjunction with Stilbocarpa polaris, Poa foliosa and Pleurophyllum hookeri.[3] The fern is seriously affected by rabbit grazing.[4]

04-09-2011, 11:53 PM
tl:dr to all of you.

I like this guy, but if he tries to fuck that little dog tonight I'm calling the humane society

04-09-2011, 11:56 PM
After the departure of Elvis Grbac (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Grbac) in 2001, the Chiefs acquired Trent Green (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trent_Green) in a trade with the St. Louis Rams (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Louis_Rams). In his first season, Green struggled and was called "a big disappointment." Phil Kloster (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Phil_Kloster&action=edit&redlink=1) famously nicknamed him "Tr-INT" after he had a particularly rough outing versus Denver in which he threw 4 interceptions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interception_%28American_football%29) to Deltha O'Neal. This was later picked up from Chiefs fan page Chiefsplanet by Jason Whitlock who printed the moniker in the Kansas City Star and took the nickname to fame. The press and Chiefs fans were occasionally critical of Green throughout his five years on the team. By his third season, Green led the Chiefs to a 13–3 record in 2003 and was called the "mastermind of the Chiefs' high-powered offense." Even after leading the franchise to its first postseason appearance in six seasons, Chiefs fans had still not figured out whether they loved him or hated him. In 2004, Green threw for 4,591 yards and a league-high 556 passing attempts. Green was selected to two Pro Bowl (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro_Bowl) games in 2003 and 2005. Green's 81-game start streak for the Chiefs from 2001–2006 is a franchise record at the position. His 88 career starts for the Chiefs is second behind Dawson. Green is the Chiefs' career leader in passer rating (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passer_rating) (87.3), average gain per attempt (7.7), 300-yard passing games (24), completion percentage (61.94), and completions of 20 or more yards (274). He is the only quarterback in Chiefs history to throw a "perfect game" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_NFL_quarterbacks_who_have_posted_a_perfect_passer_rating) registering a 158.3 passer rating (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passer_rating) against Detroit (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit_Lions) on December 14, 2003.

04-09-2011, 11:59 PM
Carl Peterson

For those of a similar name, see Carl Peterson (Australian footballer) and Carl Petersen (disambiguation).
Carl Peterson
Position(s) General Manager
College UCLA
Team(s) as a coach/administrator
1989-2008 Kansas City Chiefs

Carl D. Peterson grew up in Long Beach, California, and is an alumnus of the UCLA. He is best known as the former president, general manager, and chief executive officer of the Kansas City Chiefs of the National Football League. He served in those roles from 1989-2008. Peterson hired four coaches for the Chiefs during his tenure: Marty Schottenheimer, Gunther Cunningham, Dick Vermeil, and Herman Edwards.

Peterson took over the general manager duties in 1989 from Jim Schaaf. During his 20 years at the helm in Kansas City, the Chiefs amassed a 176–141–1 record, won the AFC West four times and reached the AFC Championship Game in 1993.[1]

On December 15, 2008, Owner Clark Hunt announced Peterson's resignation effective the end of the 2008 NFL season.[1]

After leaving Kansas City Peterson became the Chairman of USA Football, replacing the late Jack Kemp.[2]
[edit] Accomplishments

Peterson has earned praise for hiring winning coaches and re-establishing proud traditions for professional football franchises. Upon his arrival to Kansas City, he made one of the team's most important hires in its history when naming Marty Schottenheimer head coach. Schottenheimer led the team to its most successful period since Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Hank Stram paced Kansas City's sidelines. Prior to Peterson's arrival, the Chiefs had made only one playoff appearance in the previous 18 years. The Chiefs were the NFL's winningest team in the 1990s, qualified the playoffs in six of eight seasons from 1990 to 1997 and advanced to the AFC Championship Game in 1993.

Peterson led the Chiefs for 20 seasons, one of the longest and most successful tenures for a team president in modern NFL history.

04-10-2011, 12:00 AM
Lin Elliot

Lindley Franklin Elliott Jr. (born November 11, 1968 in Euless, Texas) is a former kicker for the Kansas City Chiefs and the Dallas Cowboys in the National Football League. He played college football for Texas Tech. He earned a Super Bowl ring playing for the Cowboys in Super Bowl XXVII

Elliot is best remembered for missing three field goal attempts from 35, 39, and 42 yards in a 10-7 playoff loss to the Indianapolis Colts in January 1996. The Chiefs had gone 13-3 in the regular season and had clinched home field advantage throughout the playoffs, making them heavy favorites.

Lin is now an investment manager with Texas Farm Bureau in Waco, Texas.

04-10-2011, 12:03 AM
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Suicide (Latin suicidium, from sui caedere, "to kill oneself") is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. Suicide is often committed out of despair, or attributed to some underlying mental disorder which includes depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug abuse.[1] Financial difficulties, troubles with interpersonal relationships and other undesirable situations play a significant role.[2]
Over one million people commit suicide every year. The World Health Organization estimates that it is the thirteenth-leading cause of death worldwide[3] and the National Safety Council rates it sixth in the United States.[4] It is a leading cause of death among teenagers and adults under 35.[5][6] Rates of suicide are higher in men than in women.[7] There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year worldwide.[8]
Views on suicide have been influenced by broader cultural views on existential themes such as reliai era in Japan, seppuku was respected as a means of atonement for failure or as a form of protest. In the 20th century, suicide in the form of self-immolation has been used as a form of protest, and in the form of kamikaze and suicide bombing as a military or terrorist tactic. Sati is a Hindu funeral practice in which the widow would immolate herself on her husband's funeral pyre, either willingly, or under pressure from the family and in-laws.[9]
Medically assisted suicide (euthanasia, or the right to die) is currently a controversial ethical issue involving people who are terminally ill, in extreme pain, or have (perceived or construed) minimal quality of life through injury or illness. Self-sacrifice for others is not always considered suicide, as the goal is not to kill oneself but to save another; however, Émile Durkheim's theory termed such acts "altruistic suicide."[10]
1 Classification
1.1 Self-harm
1.2 Euthanasia and assisted suicide
1.3 Murder–suicide
1.4 Suicide attack
1.5 Mass suicide
1.6 Suicide pact
1.7 Metaphorical suicide
2 Risk factors
2.1 Mental illness
2.2 Substance abuse
2.3 Cigarette smoking
2.4 Problem gambling
2.5 Biological
2.6 Social
2.7 Other
3 Suicide methods
4 Prevention
5 Epidemiology
5.1 Gender
5.2 Alcohol and drug use
5.3 Ethnicity
6 Social aspects
6.1 Intervention
6.2 Legislation
6.3 Religious views
6.4 Philosophy
6.5 Locations
7 In other species
8 See also
9 Footnotes
10 Further reading
11 External links

Main article: Self-harm
Self-harm is not a suicide attempt; however, initially self-harm was erroneously classified as a suicide attempt. There is a non-causal correlation between self-harm and suicide; both are most commonly a joint effect of depression.[11]
Euthanasia and assisted suicide
Main article: Euthanasia

Euthanasia machine invented by Dr. Philip Nitschke, on display at Science Museum, London.
Individuals who wish to end their own lives may enlist the assistance of another person to achieve death. The other person, usually a family member or physician, may help carry out the act if the individual lacks the physical capacity to do so even with the supplied means. Assisted suicide is a contentious moral and political issue in many countries, as seen in the scandal surrounding Dr. Jack Kevorkian, a medical practitioner who supported euthanasia, was found to have helped patients end their own lives, and was sentenced to prison time.
Main article: Murder–suicide
A murder–suicide is an act in which an individual kills one or more other persons immediately before or at the same time as him or herself.
The motivation for the murder in murder–suicide can be purely criminal in nature or be perceived by the perpetrator as an act of care for loved ones in the context of severe depression.
Suicide attack
Main article: Suicide attack
A suicide attack is when an attacker perpetrates an act of violence against others, typically to achieve a military or political goal, that results in his or her own death as well. Suicide bombings are often regarded as an act of terrorism. Historical examples include the assassination of Czar Alexander II and the in-part successful kamikaze attacks by Japanese air pilots during the Second World War, as well as more recent attacks, such as the September 11th attacks.
Mass suicide
Main article: Mass suicide
Some suicides are done under peer pressure or as a group. Mass suicides can take place with as few as two people, in a "suicide pact", or with a larger number of people. An example is the mass suicide that took place by members of the Peoples Temple, an American cult led by Jim Jones in Guyana in 1978.
Suicide pact
Main article: Suicide pact
A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. The plan may be to die together, or separately and closely timed. Suicide pacts are generally distinct from mass suicide. The latter refers to incidents in which a larger number of people kill themselves together for the same ideological reason, often within a religious, political, military or paramilitary context. Suicide pacts, on the other hand, usually involve small groups of people (such as married or romantic partners, family members, or friends) whose motivations are intensely personal and individual.
Metaphorical suicide
The metaphorical sense of "willful destruction of one's self-interest",[12] for example political suicide.
Risk factors

A number of factors are associated with the risk of suicide including: mental illness, drug addiction, and socio-economic factors. While external circumstances, such as a traumatic event, may trigger suicide it does not seem to be an independent cause.
Mental illness
See also: Depression (differential diagnoses)
Mental disorders are frequently present at the time of suicide with estimates from 87%[13] to 98%.[14] When broken down into type mood disorders are present in 30%, substance abuse in 18%, schizophrenia in 14%, and personality disorders in 13.0% of suicides.[14] About 5% of people with schizophrenia die of suicide.[15] Depression, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders[16][17] is being diagnosed in increasing numbers in various segments of the population worldwide,[18][19] and is often a precipitating factor in suicide. Depression in the United States alone affects 17.6 million Americans each year or 1 in 6 people. Within the next twenty years depression is expected to become the second leading cause of disability worldwide and the leading cause in high-income nations, including the United States.
In approximately 75% of completed suicides the individuals had seen a physician within the prior year before their death, 45%-66% within the prior month. Approximately 33% - 41% of those who completed suicide had contact with mental health services in the prior year, 20% within the prior month.[20][21][22][23][24]
Conservative estimates are, that 10% of all psychological symptoms may be due to medical reasons,[25] with the results of one study, suggesting that about 50% of individuals with a serious mental illness have general medical conditions that are largely undiagnosed and untreated and may cause or exacerbate psychiatric symptoms (Rothbard AB,et al. 2009)[26][27]
Substance abuse
See also: Long-term effects of alcohol and Long-term effects of benzodiazepines
Substance abuse is the second most common risk factor for suicide after mood disorders.[28] Both chronic substance misuse as well as acute substance abuse is associated with suicide. This is attributed to the intoxicating and disinhibiting effects of many psychoactive substances; when combined with personal grief such as bereavement the risk of suicide is greatly increased.[29] More than 50% of suicides are related to alcohol or drug use. Up to 25% of drug addicts and alcoholics commit suicide. In adolescents the figure is higher with alcohol or drug misuse playing a role in up to 70% of suicides. It has been recommended that all drug addicts or alcoholics are investigated for suicidal thoughts due to the high risk of suicide.[30] An investigation in the New York Prison Service found that 90% of inmates who committed suicide had a history of substance abuse.[31]
Misuse of drugs such as cocaine have a high correlation with suicide. Suicide is most likely to occur during the "crash" or withdrawal phase of cocaine in chronic abusers. Polysubstance misuse has been found to more often result in suicide in younger adults whereas suicide from alcoholism is more common in older adults. In San Diego it was found that 30% of suicides in people under the age of 30 had used cocaine. In New York City during a crack epidemic one in five people who committed suicide were found to have recently consumed cocaine. The "come down" or withdrawal phase from cocaine can result in intense depressive symptoms coupled with other distressing mental effects which serve to increase the risk of suicide. It has been found that drinking 6 drinks or more per day results in a sixfold increased risk of suicide.[32][33] Methamphetamine use has a high association with depression and suicide as well as a range of other adverse effects on physical and mental health.[34]
Alcohol misuse is associated with a number of mental health disorders, and alcoholics have a very high suicide rate.[35] High rates of major depressive disorder occur in heavy drinkers and those who abuse alcohol. Controversy has previously surrounded whether those who abused alcohol who developed major depressive disorder were self medicating (which may be true in some cases) but recent research has now concluded that chronic excessive alcohol intake itself directly causes the development of major depressive disorder in a significant number of alcohol abusers.[36]
Chronic prescribed benzodiazepine use or chronic misuse is associated with depression as well as suicide. Care should be taken when prescribing especially to at risk patients.[37][38][39] Depressed adolescents who were taking benzodiazepines were found to have a greatly increased risk of self harm or suicide, although the sample size was small. The effects of benzodiazepines in individuals under the age of 18 requires further research. Additional caution is required in using benzodiazepines in depressed adolescents.[40] Benzodiazepine dependence often results in an increasingly deteriorating clinical picture which includes social deterioration leading to comorbid alcoholism and drug abuse. Suicide is a common outcome of chronic benzodiazepine dependence. Benzodiazepine misuse or misuse of other CNS depressants increases the risk of suicide in drug misusers.[41][42] 11% of males and 23% of females with a sedative hypnotic misuse habit commit suicide.[43]
Cigarette smoking
There have been various studies done showing a positive link between smoking, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.[44][45] In a study conducted among nurses, those smoking between 1-24 cigarettes per day had twice the suicide risk; 25 cigarettes or more, 4 times the suicide risk, than those who had never smoked.[46][47] In a study of 300,000 male U.S. Army soldiers, a definitive link between suicide and smoking was observed with those smoking over a pack a day having twice the suicide rate of non-smokers.[48]
Problem gambling
Main article: Problem gambling
Problem gambling is often associated with increased suicidal ideation and attempts compared to the general population.[49][50][51]
Early onset of problem gambling increases the lifetime risk of suicide.[52] However, gambling-related suicide attempts are usually made by older people with problem gambling.[53] Both comorbid substance use[54][55] and comorbid mental disorders increase the risk of suicide in people with problem gambling.[53]
A 2010 Australian hospital study found that 17% of suicidal patients admitted to the Alfred Hospital's emergency department were problem gamblers.[56]
Genetics has an effect on suicide risk[57] accounting for 30–50% of the variance.[58] Much of this relationship acts through the heritability of mental illness.[58] There is also evidence to suggest that if a parent has committed suicide, it is a strong predictor of suicide attempts among the offspring.[59]
As a form of defiance or protest
In Ireland protesting via hunger strike to the death has been used as a tactic in recent times for political causes. During The Troubles in Northern Ireland a hunger strike was launched by the provisional IRA to demand that their prisoners be reclassified as prisoners of war rather than as terrorists, during the infamous 1981 hunger strikes, led by Bobby Sands; this protest resulted in 10 deaths. The cause of death was recorded as "starvation, self-imposed" rather than suicide by the coroner, modified to simply "starvation" on the death certificates after protests from the striker's families.[60]
Judicial suicide
See also: murder–suicide
A person who has committed a crime may commit suicide to avoid prosecution and disgrace, such as in murder–suicides. Nazi leader Hermann Göring, a high-ranked Nazi and head of the Luftwaffe, committed suicide with cyanide capsules rather than be hanged after his conviction at the Nuremberg Trials.[61] Some school shootings, including the Columbine and Virginia Tech massacres, concluded with the perpetrators committing suicide.
Military suicide
Main articles: Suicide attack and :Category:Military personnel who committed suicide

Suicide methods

Percent of suicides that are by firearm in the United States, by gender and age, 1999–2005. Data from the CDC.
Main article: Suicide methods
The leading method of suicide varies dramatically between countries. The leading methods in different regions include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms.[76] Worldwide 30% of suicides are from pesticides. The use of this method however varies markedly from 4% in Europe to more than 50% in the Pacific region.[77] In the United States 52% of suicides involve the use of firearms.[78] Asphyxiation and poisoning are fairly common as well. Together they comprised about 40% of U.S. suicides. Other methods of suicide include blunt force trauma (jumping from a building or bridge, self-defenestrating, stepping in front of a train, or car collision, for example). Exsanguination or bloodletting (slitting one's wrist or throat), intentional drowning, self-immolation, electrocution, and intentional starvation are other suicide methods. Individuals may also intentionally provoke another person into administering lethal action against them, as in suicide by cop.
Whether or not exposure to suicide is a risk factor for suicide is controversial.[79] A 1996 study was unable to find a relationship between suicides among friends,[80] while a 1986 study found increased rates of suicide following the televisation of news stories regarding suicide.[81]

This section requires expansion.
Main article: Suicide prevention
Suicide prevention is a term used for the collective efforts to reduce the incidence of suicide through prevention measures. One of the first exclusively professional research centers was established in 1958 in Los Angeles. The first crisis hotline service in the U.S. run by selected, trained citizen volunteers was established 1961 in San Francisco.
While crisis hotline are common there is little evidence to support or refute their effectiveness.[82]

Main article: Epidemiology of suicide

Deaths for self inflicted injuries per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[83]
Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death worldwide[1] with about a million people dying by suicide annually.[84] According to 2007 data, suicides in the U.S. outnumber homicides by nearly 2 to 1 and ranks as the 11th leading cause of death in the country, ahead of liver disease and Parkinson's.[85] Worldwide suicide rates have increased by 60% in the past 50 years, mainly in the developing countries.
A disproportionate amount of suicides in the world occur in Asia, which is estimated to account for up to 60% of all suicides. According to the World Health Organization, China, India and Japan may account for 40% of all world suicides.[86]
In the U.S., the rate of suicide is increasing for the first time in a decade. The increase in the overall suicide rate between 1999 and 2005 has been due primarily to an increase in suicides among whites aged 40–64, with white middle-aged women experiencing the largest annual increase.[87]
Main article: Gender and suicide
In the Western world, males die much more often by means of suicide than do females, although females attempt suicide more often. Some medical professionals believe this stems from the fact that males are more likely to end their lives through effective violent means, while women primarily use less severe methods such as overdosing on medications.

Suicide rate per 100,000 males (left) and female (right) (data from 1978–2008).
no data
< 1
In The Eclipse: A Memoir of Suicide, author Antonella Gambotto-Burke reports that in the West, middle-aged men now lead "the self-annihilation stakes (40% of total suicides)." She continues: "Triggers of choice are generally separation, unemployment, debt. Male gender identity is defined by (active) conquest ... In externalizing the source of their self-esteem, they surrender all emotional independence. (Conquest requires two parties, after all.) A man cannot feel like a man without a partner, corporation, team. Manhood is a game played on the terrain of opposites. It thus follows that male sense of self disintegrates when the Other is absent."[88]
Alcohol and drug use
In the United States 16.5% of suicides are related to alcohol.[89] Alcoholics are 5 to 20 times more likely to kill themselves while the misuse of other drugs increases the risk 10 to 20 times. About 15% of alcoholics commit suicide, and about 33% of suicides in the under 35's have a primary diagnosis of alcohol or other substance misuse; over 50% of all suicides are related to alcohol or drug dependence. In adolescents alcohol or drug misuse plays a role in up to 70% of suicides.[30][90]
See also: Finno-Ugrian suicide hypothesis
National suicide rates differ significantly between countries and amongst ethnic groups within countries.[91] For example, in the U.S., non-Hispanic Caucasians are nearly 2.5 times more likely to kill themselves than African Americans or Hispanics.[92] In the United Kingdom suicide rates vary significantly between different parts of the country. In Scotland, for example the suicide rate is approximately double that of England.[93]
Social aspects

Main article: Suicide intervention
The predominant view of modern medicine is that suicide is a mental health concern, associated with psychological factors such as the difficulty of coping with depression, inescapable suffering or fear, or other mental disorders and pressures. A suicide attempt is sometimes interpreted as a "cry for help" and attention, or to express despair and the wish to escape, rather than a genuine intent to die.[94] Most people who attempt suicide do not complete suicide on a first attempt; those who later gain a history of repetitions have a significantly higher probability of eventual completion of suicide.[95]
In the United States, individua

04-10-2011, 05:17 AM
Antifreeze For other uses, see Antifreeze (disambiguation). Antifreeze is a freeze preventative used in internal combustion engines and other heat transfer applications, such as HVAC chillers and solar water heaters. The purpose of antifreeze is to prevent a rigid enclosure from undergoing catastrophic deformation due to expansion when water turns to ice. Most antifreezes are chemical compounds made to be added to water to reduce the freezing point of the mixture below the lowest temperature that the system is likely to encounter. Either the additive or the mixture may be referred to as antifreeze, which enables competition between unmixed antifreeze (the additive) with mixed antifreeze (water + the additive) in common retail packaging. Antifreeze is normally a colligative agent when mixed with water, enabling it to not only produce freezing point depression for a cold environment, but it coincidentally achieves boiling point elevation of the water A colligative agent is properly referred to as both antifreeze and "anti-boil" when used for both properties.

04-10-2011, 06:05 AM
I'm quite sure that none of these posts but mine are actually random.

Nô (film)
Nô is a 1998 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1998) film by director Robert Lepage (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Lepage). It was based on one segment in Lepage's play Seven Streams of the River Ota.<sup id="cite_ref-newyorker_0-0" class="reference">[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%B4_%28film%29#cite_note-newyorker-0)</sup><sup id="cite_ref-monk322_1-0" class="reference">[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C3%B4_%28film%29#cite_note-monk322-1)</sup>
The title is a pun (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pun) which reflects the film's dramatic structure, linking the 1980 Quebec referendum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1980_Quebec_referendum) (in which the "no" won) to Japanese (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan) Nō (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N%C5%8D) theatre.

Shit is usually considered a vulgarity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulgar) and profanity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profanity) in Modern English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_language). As a noun it refers to fecal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feces) matter (excrement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Excretion)) and as a verb it means to defecate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defecation) or defecate in; in the plural ("the shits") it means diarrhea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarrhea). Shite is also a common variant in British English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_English) and Ireland English (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland_English).<sup id="cite_ref-0" class="reference">[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shit#cite_note-0)</sup> As a slang term, it has many meanings, including: nonsense (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonsense), foolishness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foolishness), something of little value or quality, trivial and usually boastful or inaccurate talk, or a contemptible person. It may also be used as an expression of annoyance, surprise, or anger.

Sherlock is a rare masculine English surname (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_surname), literally meaning "fair-haired", from O.E. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English) scir ("bright") and locc ("lock of hair").

Tribal Warfare
04-10-2011, 07:18 AM
This article is about the term "God" in the context of monotheism and henotheism. For the general polytheistic concept, see Deity. For other uses, see Tim Tebow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Tebow)

God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions (and other belief systems) who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism.[1]

God is most often conceived of as the supernatural creator and overseer of the universe. Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most common among these include omniscience (infinite knowledge), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence.

God has also been conceived as being incorporeal (immaterial), a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent".[1] These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Muslim theologian philosophers, including Maimonides,[2] Augustine of Hippo,[2] and Al-Ghazali,[3] respectively. Many notable medieval philosophers and modern philosophers developed arguments for the existence of God.[3] Many notable philosophers and intellectuals have, in contrast, developed arguments against the existence of God.

Dave Lane
04-10-2011, 11:55 AM
The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc)[2] away in the constellation Virgo. Comprising approximately 1300 (and possibly up to 2000) member galaxies,[3] the cluster forms the heart of the larger Local Supercluster, of which the Local Group is an outlying member. It is estimated that its mass is 1.2×1015 M☉ out to 8 degrees of the cluster's center or a radius of about 2.2 Mpc.[4]

Many of the brighter galaxies in this cluster, including the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87, were discovered in the late 1770s and early 1780s and subsequently included in Charles Messier's catalogue of non-cometary fuzzy objects. Described by Messier as nebulae without stars, their true nature was not recognized until the 1920s.[5]

The cluster subtends a maximum arc of approximately 8 degrees centered in the constellation Virgo. Many of the member galaxies of the cluster are visible with a small telescope.

The cluster is a fairly heterogeneous mixture of spirals and ellipticals.[6]As of 2004, it is believed that the spirals of the cluster are distributed in an oblong prolate filament, approximately 4 times as long as wide, stretching along the line of sight from the Milky Way.[7] The elliptical galaxies are more centrally concentrated than the spiral galaxies.

The cluster is an aggregrate of at least three separate subclumps centered on the galaxies M87, M86, and M49. Of the three subclumps, the one centered on M87 is the dominant one, with a mass of approximately 1014 solar masses, which is approximately an order of magnitude larger than the other two subclumps.[8]

The large mass of the cluster is indicated by the high peculiar velocities of many of its galaxies, sometimes as high as 1,600 km/s with respect to the cluster's center.

The Virgo cluster lies within the Local Supercluster, and its gravitational effects slow down the nearby galaxies. The large mass of the cluster has the effect of slowing down the recession of the Local Group from the cluster by approximately ten percent

Baby Lee
04-10-2011, 12:10 PM
Sir Harold Wyndham CBE (June 1903 – May 1988) was Director-General of Education in New South Wales between 1952 and 1968. He chaired the committee whose report (referred to as "The Wyndham Report"[1]) led to the Education Act 1961 which completely re-organised secondary education in NSW.
Contents [hide]
1 Early life and background
2 Education
3 Career & The "Wyndham Report"
4 Public Life
5 References
[edit]Early life and background

Wyndham was a great-grandson of Wadham Wyndham.[2] His grandfather Alexander Wyndham (d.1915) arrived in Australia in the 1850s with a sizeable inheritance but within 20 years the fortune had been spent, lent or otherwise lost.
Harold Stanley Wyndham was born in Parkes, New South Wales in June 1903. His mother died in June 1908, a short time after the arrival of her third child, Norman. His stepmother urged that the family be moved to Sydney to ensure the children could receive a more rounded education. His brother Norman became a noted Sydney-based surgeon.
Harold married Margaret Grieve in 1936 and moved to the Sydney suburb of Roseville in 1937 where the couple raised three sons, all of whom attended the academically selective North Sydney Boys High School. Wyndham died in Roseville in May 1988.

Wyndham attended Fort Street High School and graduated in Arts at the University of Sydney in 1924. In 1925 he was awarded a Diploma in Education, winning the Peter Board Prize. He served for 8 years as a teacher in Primary schools and as a member of staff of Sydney Teachers College.[3]
In 1928 he graduated Master of Arts (1st Class honours in History). In 1932 he won the NSW Teacher's Federation travelling scholarship and the Carnegie Travel Grant to the USA where he studied at Stanford University in California. He won his Doctorate in Education in 1934. During World War II he served with the Royal Australian Air Force as a Flight Lieutenant and was involved in the early stages of the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme and the re-establishment of disabled ex-servicemen.
[edit]Career & The "Wyndham Report"

In 1935 Dr Wyndham was appointed as the first research officer for the Department of Education. In 1946 he was appointed Staff Insector, Secretary in 1948 and Deputy Director-General in 1951. In November 1952 he became Director-General of Education [4]
In 1954 he was appointed to chair a committee tasked to completely review the Secondary education system in New South Wales and make recommendations for improvements to be implemented.[5] The committee's report, popularly referred to as "The Wyndham Report", was presented to the Minister in October 1957. The report gave rise to the Public Education Act of 1961 and was brought into effect in 1962. Key amongst the changes was the objective of presenting all students with the opportunity to experience a wide range of subjects, including visual arts, industrial arts, music and drama, and a wide range of languages. The Five-year Secondary School system was abandoned in favour of adding another year to the course, with major state-wide external examinations at the end of the Tenth (School Certificate) and the twelfth (Higher School Certificate) years of schooling.
When Dr Wyndham was appointed as Director-General of Eduacation there were 455,000 students in the NSW Education system, of whom 100,000 were in Secondary schools; By 1968 there was over 244,000 students in secondary school of whom 64% could be expected to complete the Higher School Certificate.
[edit]Public Life

Wyndham devoted much of his life to public service outside of his role in the Department of Education. In 1945 he led the Australian delegation at the conference which created UNESCO and was a member of the Australian delegation to UNESCO in 1958 and again in 1966. In 1959 he represented Australia at the Commonwealth Education Conference at Oxford and again in New Delhi in 1962. He was a Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Administration and a Fellow and President (1963–1965) of the Australian College of Educators. He was Chairman of the NSW State Library Board, NSW State Archives Authority, Secondary Schools Board, Board of Senior School Studies, Board of Teacher Education, Sydney Symphony Orchestra Advisory Committee and Intellectually Handicapped Standing Committee amongst others. He was a member of the Senate of the University of Sydney, Council of the University of New South Wales, Council of the University of New England, Council of Macquarie University, Technical Education Advisory Council and the Sydney Opera House Trust. In recognition of his services to Education in NSW, Wyndham was made Commander of the British Empire in 1961.[6] He was further knighted as a Knight Bachelor for his services to education in 1969.[7]

^ Geoff Hasler (9 November 1961) Reluctant director moves on Sydney Morning Herald
^ Wyndham, H.S. "College Wyndhams in Australia"; private collection
^ The Education Gazette, December 1968
^ Dr H..S. Wyndham December 1968 The Education Gazette
^ Curtis, Stephen (2007)"The Leaving Certificate in New South Wales from 1939 to 1962"UTS, Sydney
^ Commander of the Order of the British Empire (Civil), CBE, 10 June 1961, itsanhonour.gov.au
Citation: Director-General of Education in NSW.
^ Knight Bachelor, Kt, 14 June 1969, itsanhonour.gov.au
Citation: Services to education.

Baby Lee
04-10-2011, 12:11 PM
Oh, and . . .


04-10-2011, 12:21 PM
The Don and Mike Show was an American nationally syndicated radio talk show hosted by the shock jocks Don Geronimo and Mike O'Meara, which aired from December 1985 through April 2008, when Geronimo retired in order to focus on his personal life.[1] After Geronimo's retirement, the remaining cast members formed The Mike O'Meara Show. In the later years, the show was carried on 20-30 stations across the United States by the CBS-owned Westwood One Radio Network. The show's flagship station was 106.7 WJFK in Washington DC. In 2007, the show ranked #66 in the Talkers Magazine Heavy 100.[2] The show's last live regular episode with Don Geronimo was broadcast March 13, 2008. Don Geronimo hosted a farewell show April 11, 2008.[3]

The show debuted on WAVA in 1985 as The Morning Zoo with Don and Mike. The official name of the show became The Don and Mike Show when the duo moved to WJFK-FM in 1991.

The show was co-hosted by Don Geronimo (real name: Mike Sorce) and Mike O'Meara. News briefs and occasional commentary were provided by Buzz Burbank. The show was most recently produced by former show intern Robb Spewak. Phone calls were screened by Joe Ardinger (sometimes referred to as the "World's Oldest Phone Screener"), who also occasionally contributed to the show and broadcasts his own show on Saturday nights on WJFK-FM.
The show included four news reporters over the course of its run. David Haines (1985–1989), the program's original newsman, died on July 10, 2005.[4] Laurie Neff, the second newsperson, is known for getting into a traffic accident with Washington DC mayor Marion Barry.[5] Dave Schreiber served as the show's third newsman until 1991 when Buzz Burbank arrived and continued in the position through the end of the Don and Mike show and on to the successor show hosted by O'Meara.

WAVA and WJFK-FM subscribe to the traffic services of fellow CBS Radio subsidiary Metro Traffic. Former Washington traffic reporters include Kim "Boomer" Anderson, Rob Carpente, Janet DeLaney, Kris Gamble, Stevie Bridgewater, and Shari Elliker (1992–1996) Elliker co-hosted the Broadminded radio program on XM Radio and currently hosts her own show on WBAL in Baltimore, Maryland. The show also took advantage of the service's offer to allow the show to provide pseudonyms for its traffic reporter. Over the years, "Michael Hunt", "Vera Bruptly", "Lane Closure", "Jason Feces", and "Michelle Hughes" (a take-off on "Michael Hughes", WJFK's general manager) were heard on the WJFK-FM feed of the show (not on affiliate feeds).

The show had a number of producers throughout its run. While at WAVA, John Nolan (1985–1986) was the first producer. Frank Murphy (1986–1991) opted to stay with WAVA when Don and Mike left the station for WJFK. Murphy has since moved to Los Angeles and worked at KROQ-FM and KLOS. Diana Silman (1991–1996) began the WJFK era for the show. She later left to become a program director on March 7, 1996. The current producer and a former show intern, Robb Spewak served as producer for a time after Silman and before Charlie Broyhill (1997–2001) arrived, followed by Lisa Herndon-Broyhill (2002–2004). Beth Ann McBride (2004–2005) left, citing the high cost of living in the Washington area, and to have her own show on WSJS in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has since left that job and returned to Washington to work on O'Meara's successor show. Robb Spewak picked up producing duties again until March 2007, and then again in October 2007 Robb Spewak took over the role of producer.

In keeping with the open environment on the show, phone screeners were sometimes featured on air. In addition to Joe Ardinger, Joe Rockhead, and Christine CK2 were featured. Engineers Darryl Nichols, Tony Diggs, and NRA member and gun enthusiast Wendell Hall received airtime as well.
Executives and managers at WJFK were also featured on the show. Former WJFK-FM production director, Chris Madzik, was featured frequently before he left in 1996 for Detroit. WAVA general managers Alan Goodman and Ken Stevens as well as WJFK-FM general managers Alan Leinwand and Michael Hughes were frequent targets for the show. Program directors Smoky Rivers, Jeremy Coleman, Cameron Gray, Greg Gillespie, Max Dugan, Matthew Verbin and Matt Farber received similar treatment.

Unlike other similar radio shows, the Don and Mike show did not always have an intern; those it did have, however, were often featured on the program. Producer Robb Spewak started as an intern. Other former interns included, The Menendez Brothers (Lowell Melser, Marc Ronick) Jimmy the Intern, "B.O. Bob" (Bob Cesca) (news intern reporting to Buzz Burbank) and, most recently, Matt the Intern (AKA Matt the Pole) who worked with the show from June–August 2007.

In 1985 Don Geronimo was doing afternoons on WAVA-FM. That year, the station asked him to move to mornings, and Geronimo, who had heard O'Meara entertaining station employees with impressions, asked whether O'Meara could serve as a co-host during his new time slot. The new program would replace the "Charlie and Harrigan Show".[6]

WAVA debuted "The New Morning zoo" on December 11, 1985, pairing up hosts Don Geronimo and Mike O'Meara. It also featured David Haines with news, Kim Anderson (nicknamed "Boomer" or Kim "Boom Boom" Anderson) on traffic reports, and was produced by John Nolan. Nolan was later replaced by producer Frank Murphy. Whenever anything went wrong with the show, Don or Mike would shout "Fraaaank". The original format interspersed talk and comedy bits with top-40 music.

For several weeks during the summer of 1988, Geronimo and O'Meara hosted their own Washington, DC-based television series, "The Prime Time Video Zoo", which was aired on the local CBS affiliate WUSA. Airing weekly at 8pm, the show was taped with a small studio audience and featured several bits from the radio program as well as O'Meara's impressions and D.C. area personalities, with segments of Top-40 music videos.

Haines was the first show "regular" to leave for a better offer elsewhere, departing for more money at WPLJ in New York City in 1989. Haines' replacement was Laurie Neff. Dave Schreiber succeeded Neff.[7]

Geronimo's wife was a DJ at the time of the debut of the show, using the radio name "Laura Petrie." Geronimo's young son Bart Sorce made appearances on the early stages of the show as "Bart the Weatherman."

In June 1991, WAVA was purchased by Salem Communications. At first, Salem was known primarily as a religious broadcaster. But it had a few secularly programmed stations, and indicated it might be interested in maintaining a contemporary music format on WAVA if Don & Mike would stay on as the morning show. When the duo accepted a better offer from crosstown WJFK, Salem later announced that it would be changing WAVA'a format to Christian music & teaching.

The show debuted in the afternoons on WJFK on October 1, 1991. After a two-month hiatus, the show had changed time slots, stations and producers, with Diana Silman replacing Frank Murphy. Mike Elston, known on the show as Buzz Burbank, joined the show in December 1991. The program evolved after the move, adding Burbank and traffic reporter Shari Liquour (real name Shari Elliker) to the cast. Robb Spewak joined the show as an intern in 1992. He would perform various stunts.

The program was added to the lineup of WNEW in New York, and moved to mid-days in 2001. The move was billed as an opportunity to maximize the show's potential, and promote fellow Infinity Broadcasting network program Opie and Anthony. It didn't work. The program garnered low ratings in New York. The show was #1 in Washington, DC during its last ratings book for mid-days but was removed from the WNEW lineup.

The last day in mid-days was August 21, 2002. The program returned to afternoons on September 3, 2002, in most of the markets where it had been broadcast before the move. In late 2006, the show went on an extended hiatus without explanation.

When the show started broadcasting again live on January 2, 2007, it was revealed that Don had been angry since the death of Freda, and that he felt that he had not had time to properly grieve. Don was also feeling guilty about feeling happy without Freda. For all intents and purposes Don and Mike thought that the show was done, but after a few weeks Don accepted his bosses' offer to take the rest of 2006 off, get his head together with the help of a counselor, and then return in 2007. [1] Contrary to popular belief, a new contract was not in the negotiations for Don & Mike's return to the airwaves, and the duo still planned to close out their contract in late 2008.

Don Geronimo announced on February 4, 2008, that he would leave the show on May 30. That date was moved up to April 11, 2008[8] in a surprise announcement from the WJFK program director which also included the return of Beth Ann McBride as producer.[3] The show was then known as The Mike O'Meara Show. It continued along with a similar format, minus Don, up until July 2009 when the show was cancelled following the decision to turn WJFK into a sports talk station.[9][10][11] Westwood One also continued to syndicate the show in its new lineup up until its cancellation.

On December 14, 1999 the show called an El Cinezo, Tex. city council woman and lampooned the community's decision to conduct official business in Spanish. The FCC fined Infinity Broadcasting $4,000, the minimum amount, for "willful violation of Section 73.1206 of the Commission’s rules, the unauthorized broadcast of a telephone conversation."[12]

On February 3, 2004, a pair of expletives ("bullshit") spoken by Geronimo was not censored by the usual delay, resulting in a shakeup of the show. The show was subsequently suspended for two weeks. When they returned on February 20, 2004, their first show included four consecutive hours of music.
The move toward reverb fluctuated throughout the life of the show. When Don became program director of WJFK-FM for a short time, he ordered reverb be added to the entire station, and years before that, when the duo first appeared on WJFK in October 1991, a caller asked, "Where's the reverb?" The show on WAVA-FM had used heavy reverb.

On December 16, 1994 the program broadcast live from the El Dorado Casino in Reno, Nev. In 1996, the show produced "Sex, Pies and Videotape" , a video which featured Don and Mike taking a bus full of listeners to a local nudist colony for an Olympic style event, during which all of the contestants were nude.

In July 2003 the Don and Mike Show also collaborated with Brocket 99 radio station to promote the self-deprecating humour of Ernie Scar, a supposedly Native American aboriginal that stereotypes life on the local reserve nearby. A 2005 documentatory titled "Brocket 99 - Rockin' the Country", by Nilesh Patel illustrates this point by raising the issue in an effort to bridge the cultural divide. However, the segments featuring Brocket 99 on Don and Mikes' Radio show triggered no public outcry.

The show developed both good and bad relationships with several Hollywood celebrities over the years. Leah Remini was a great friend of the show. Don and Mike have visited with Leah in her home and appeared on the King of Queens. Leah's appearances were so frequent on the show that she had an ISDN line installed in her home; however, she was unable to contribute to the show at the same level for longer periods of time. Max Baer, Jr., star of The Beverly Hillbillies, feuded with Don and Mike after they made fun of his idea to open a Beverly Hillbillies casino in Reno, Nevada. He claimed on local radio he would "spend the rest of [his] life badmouthing Don and Mike."[13]

Carl R. Grossman, a former frequent caller, pleaded guilty in May 2007 to stalking charges in connection with a letter sent to Don Geronimo at his home threatening him and his family. A judge has placed a lifetime restraining order on Grossman against any contact with Geronimo or his family.[14] Shortly after, Grossman lost employment working on a help desk for Loudoun County employees. He was later diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, a developmental disorder that shares traits with autism. Grossman died Aug. 22, 2009 at his home in Leesburg of respiratory failure.[15]

[edit]The death of Freda
On Sunday July 10, 2005, Don's wife Freda died after an automobile accident,[16] and the following day, O'Meara and the crew, minus Geronimo, broke the news to listeners. The first hour of the program featured calls from concerned listeners, most of whom expressed condolences. The show attempted thereafter to return to the usual format, though it held a somewhat somber tone for the rest of the day.

On August 1, 2005, Geronimo returned to the air without O'Meara, speaking frankly as Michael Sorce, about the events of the previous month. He began the segment by playing the Beach Boys' 1964 hit "Don't Worry Baby", which he said was his and his wife's "special song". August 2 marked the return of the "normal" show.

[edit]Friends of the show
James Brown: Host of CBS's NFL Today show.
Jim Nantz: "Mr. CBS", affectionately referred to on the show as "Nancy" and "she".
Dick Van Patten: actor, comedian, dog food entrepreneur.
Patton Oswalt: stand-up comedian, longtime Don & Mike fan. Loves to talk comics with Don.
Frank Caliendo: stand-up comedian/impressionist, Featured performer on MADtv for several seasons.
Jim Elliot: Competing DJ of "Elliot and Woodside", later worked at WAVA with Don and Mike, later worked at Arista Records, and currently; analyzes radio airplay.
Al Molinaro Star of Happy Days and the Encore family dinners TV spots. A former "go to" celebrity Don and Mike would call to offer birthday wishes or to simply say "hi". In the closing months of the show Don and Mike tried to verify whether Al was still alive, attempting in vain to contact him by fax and phone.
Topper Shutt: WUSA 9 chief meteorologist
Cheryl the Big Dyke: activist and contributor to the show on all things gay and lesbian. Cheryl died of myeloid leukemia on September 4, 2007.
"Homo Joe": Outspoken gay man who offered cub report style coverage of several alternative lifestyle events.
Dennis Murphy: A long time contributor to the show who was befriended by Don & Mike and became a semi-regular reported from the field and sometimes in studio also used his appearances to create his personna as "Major F---ing Star, Dennis Murphy" complete with a website and Christmas albums
Tom Gavin: A rival to Dennis Murphy who hosted his own cable access radio show in the Washington Area was a frequent contributor to the show
Super Dave: A man with an extremely high voice and an enemy of Tom Gavin
The Belcher: A known radio and television prank caller since 1976 in the New York City area, began as a prank caller to the show on WNEW-FM New York in 2001, later becoming a popular regular feature on the show as a prank caller of other radio and television shows mentioning various cast members by name, gaining a widespread following across the United States thanks to the syndication of The Don & Mike Show across the country. Later became a feature on "The Mike O'Meara Show" Audio Vault after Don Geronimo retired, resulting in the formation of The Mike O'Meara Show.

04-10-2011, 12:30 PM
Devedesete (trans. 1990s) is the tenth studio album released by Serbian and former Yugoslav singer-songwriter Đorđe Balašević.
Inspired with the events in Serbia at the end of 1990s Devedesete was Balašević's most politically involved album (for this reason the album was partially self-released). Balašević openly made fun of Slobodan Milošević with the song "Legenda o Gedi Gluperdi", criticized police officers who defended the corrupt system by confronting demonstrating youth in "Plava balada", looked back to the 1990s with disgust in the title song "Devedesete", supplied young demonstrators with an anthem "Živeti slobodno" (dedicated to civic youth movement Otpor!), reaching out to his lost friends in Croatia and Bosnia with "Sevdalinka", but still preserving patriotism with "Dok gori nebo nad Novim Sadom", a song about the 1999 NATO bombing of Novi Sad. This album clearly marked the atmosphere in Serbia in the year when Slobodan Milošević lost power.

Thig Lyfe
04-10-2011, 12:48 PM
Dave Mikes is a former news anchor at WFTS-TV. He joined their news team as a morning and noon anchor in 1997. Before joining WFTS, he worked at WOWK-TV, WVVA-TV and WHIZ-TV. He graduated from The Ohio State University with a BA in Journalism.

04-10-2011, 01:08 PM
History of draught

Until Joseph Bramah (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Joseph_Bramah) patented the beer engine (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Beer_engine) in 1785, beer was served directly from the cask and carried to the customer. The Old English (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_language) word for carry was dragen which developed into a series of related words, including drag, draw, and draught. By extension, the word for carrying or drawing a beer came to mean the serving of the beer and, in some senses, the act of drinking, or a drink of beer itself, regardless of serving method. By the time Bramah's beer pumps became popular, the use of the word draught to mean the act of serving beer was well established and transferred easily to beer served via the hand pumps.
In 1691, an article in the London Gazette (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/London_Gazette) mentioned John Lofting, who held a patent for a fire engine (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Fire_apparatus): "The said patentee has also projected a very useful engine for starting of beer, and other liquors which will draw from 20 to 30 barrels an hour, which are completely fixed with brass joints and screws at reasonable rates".
In the early 20th century, serving draught beer from pressurised containers began. Artificial carbonation (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Carbonation) was introduced in the United Kingdom (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/United_Kingdom) in 1936, with Watney’s experimental pasteurised (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Pasteurization) beer Red Barrel. Though this method of serving beer did not take hold in the U.K. until the late 1950s, it did become the favoured method in the rest of Europe, where it is known by such terms as en pression. The method of serving beer under pressure then spread to the rest of the world; by the early 1970s, draught beer was almost exclusively beer served under pressure.
Shortly after a British consumer organisation called the Campaign for Real Ale (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Campaign_for_Real_Ale) (CAMRA) was founded, in 1971, to protect unpressurised beer, the group devised the term real ale (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Cask_ale#Real_ale) to differentiate between beer served from the cask and beer served under pressure. By 2004, the term real ale had been expanded to include bottle-conditioned (http://www.chiefsplanet.com/wiki/Bottle_conditioning) beer, while the term cask ale had become the accepted global term to indicate a beer not served under pressure.

04-10-2011, 10:21 PM
Atmosphere of Titan
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

True-color image of layers of haze in Titan's atmosphere.
The atmosphere of Titan is known as the only fully developed atmosphere that exists on a natural satellite in our solar system.
Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Extent
3 Composition
4 Evolution
5 See also
6 References

The presence of a significant atmosphere was first suspected by Spanish astronomer Josep Comas Solà, who observed distinct limb darkening on Titan in 1903,[1] and confirmed by Gerard P. Kuiper in 1944 using a spectroscopic technique that yielded an estimate of an atmospheric partial pressure of methane of the order of 100 millibars (10 kPa).[2] Subsequent observations in the 1970s showed that Kuiper's figures had been significant underestimates; methane abundances in Titan's atmosphere were ten times higher, and the surface pressure was at least double what he had predicted. The high surface pressure meant that methane could only form a small fraction of Titan's atmosphere.[3] In 1981, Voyager 1 made the first detailed observations of Titan's atmosphere, revealing that its surface pressure was in fact thicker than Earth's, at 1.5 bars.[4]

Observations from the Voyager space probes have shown that the Titanian atmosphere is denser than Earth's, with a surface pressure about 1.45 times that of Earth's. Titan's atmosphere is about 1.19 times as massive as Earth's overall,[5] or about 7.3 times more massive on a per surface area basis. It supports opaque haze layers that block most visible light from the Sun and other sources and renders Titan's surface features obscure. The atmosphere is so thick and the gravity so low that humans could fly through it by flapping "wings" attached to their arms.[6] Titan's lower gravity means that its atmosphere is far more extended than Earth's; even at a distance of 975 km, the Cassini spacecraft had to make adjustments to maintain a stable orbit against atmospheric drag.[7] The atmosphere of Titan is opaque at many wavelengths and a complete reflectance spectrum of the surface is impossible to acquire from the outside.[8] It was not until the arrival of the Cassini-Huygens mission in 2004 that the first direct images of Titan's surface were obtained. The Huygens probe was unable to detect the direction of the Sun during its descent, and although it was able to take images from the surface, the Huygens team likened the process to "taking pictures of an asphalt parking lot at dusk".[9]

A cloud imaged in false color over Titan's north pole.
The atmospheric composition in the stratosphere is 98.4% nitrogen—the only dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere in the Solar System aside from the Earth's—with the remaining 1.6% composed of mostly of methane (1.4%) and hydrogen (0.1–0.2%).[10] Because methane condenses out of Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes, its abundance increases as one descends below the tropopause at an altitude of 32 km, leveling off at a value of 4.9% between 8 km and the surface.[10][11] There are trace amounts of other hydrocarbons, such ethane, diacetylene, methylacetylene, acetylene and propane, and of other gases, such as cyanoacetylene, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanogen, argon and helium.[11] The orange color as seen from space must be produced by other more complex chemicals in small quantities, possibly tholins, tar-like organic precipitates.[12] The hydrocarbons are thought to form in Titan's upper atmosphere in reactions resulting from the breakup of methane by the Sun's ultraviolet light, producing a thick orange smog.[13] Titan has no magnetic field, although studies in 2008 showed that Titan retains remnants of Saturn's magnetic field on the brief occasions when it passes outside Saturn's magnetosphere and is directly exposed to the solar wind.[14] This may ionize and carry away some molecules from the top of the atmosphere. In November 2007, scientists uncovered evidence of negative ions with roughly 10 000 times the mass of hydrogen in Titan's ionosphere, which are believed to fall into the lower regions to form the orange haze which obscures Titan's surface. Their structure is not currently known, but they are believed to be tholins, and may form the basis for the formation of more complex molecules, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.[15]
Energy from the Sun should have converted all traces of methane in Titan's atmosphere into more complex hydrocarbons within 50 million years — a short time compared to the age of the Solar System. This suggests that methane must be somehow replenished by a reservoir on or within Titan itself. That Titan's atmosphere contains over a thousand times more methane than carbon monoxide would appear to rule out significant contributions from cometary impacts, since comets are composed of more carbon monoxide than methane. That Titan might have accreted an atmosphere from the early Saturnian nebula at the time of formation also seems unlikely; in such a case, it ought to have atmospheric abundances similar to the solar nebula, including hydrogen and neon.[16] Many astronomers have suggested that the ultimate origin for the methane in Titan's atmosphere is from within Titan itself, released via eruptions from cryovolcanoes.[17][18][19] A possible biological origin for the methane has not been discounted (see Life on Titan).
There is also a pattern of air circulation found flowing in the direction of Titan's rotation, from west to east. Observations by Cassini of the atmosphere made in 2004 also suggest that Titan is a "super rotator", like Venus, with an atmosphere that rotates much faster than its surface.[20]
Titan's ionosphere is also more complex than Earth's, with the main ionosphere at an altitude of 1,200 km but with an additional layer of charged particles at 63 km. This splits Titan's atmosphere to some extent into two separate radio-resonating chambers. The source of natural ELF waves (see above) on Titan is unclear as there does not appear to be extensive lightning activity. Titan's internal magnetic field is negligible, and perhaps even nonexistent.[21] Its orbital distance of 20.3 Saturn radii does place it within Saturn's magnetosphere occasionally. However, the difference between Saturn's rotational period (10.7 hours) and Titan's orbital period (15.95 days) causes a relative speed of about 100 km/s between the Saturn's magnetized plasma and Titan.[21] That can actually intensify reactions causing atmospheric loss, instead of guarding the atmosphere from the solar wind.[22]

The persistence of a dense atmosphere on Titan has been enigmatic as the atmospheres of the structurally similar satellites of Jupiter, Ganymede and Callisto, are negligible. While the disparity is still poorly understood, data from recent missions have provided basic constraints on the evolution of Titan's atmosphere.

Layers of atmosphere, image from the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft
Roughly speaking, at the distance of Saturn, solar insolation and solar wind flux are sufficiently low that elements and compounds that are volatile on the terrestrial planets tend to accumulate in all three phases.[23] Titan's surface temperature is also quite low, about 94 kelvins (K).[24][25] Consequently, the mass fractions of substances that can become atmospheric constituents are much larger on Titan than on Earth. In fact, current interpretations suggest that only about 50% of Titan's mass is silicates,[26] with the rest consisting primarily of various H2O (water) ices and NH3-H2O (ammonia hydrates). NH3, which may be the original source of Titan's atmospheric N2 (dinitrogen), may constitute as much as 8% of the NH3-H2O mass.[27] As Tobie et al. illustrate in Figure 1,[27] Titan is most likely differentiated into layers, where the liquid water layer beneath ice Ih may be rich in NH3.
Tentative constraints are available, with the current loss mostly due to low gravity[28] and solar wind[29] aided by photolysis. The loss of Titan's early atmosphere can be estimated with the 14N/15N isotopic ratio, as the lighter 14N is preferentially lost from the upper atmosphere under photolysis and heating. Since Titan's original 14N/15N ratio is poorly constrained, the early atmosphere may have had more N2 by factors ranging from 1.5 to 100 with certainty only in the lower factor.[28] Since N2 is the primary component (98%) of Titan's atmosphere,[30] the isotopic ratio suggests that much of the atmosphere has been lost over geologic time. Nevertheless, atmospheric pressure on its surface remains nearly 1.5 times that of Earth as it began with a proportionally greater volatile budget than Earth or Mars.[25] It is possible that most of the atmospheric loss was within 50 million years of accretion[disambiguation needed], from a highly energetic escape of light atoms carrying away a large portion of the atmosphere (hydrodynamic blow off event).[29] Such an event could be driven by heating and photolysis effects of the early Sun's higher output of X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) photons.
Since Callisto and Ganymede are structurally similar to Titan, it is unclear why their atmospheres are insignificant relative to Titan's. Nevertheless, the origin of Titan's N2 via geologically ancient photolysis of accreted[disambiguation needed] and degassed NH3, as opposed to degassing of N2 from accretionary clathrates, may be the key to a correct inference. Had N2 been released from clathrates, 36Ar and 38Ar that are inert primordial isotopes of the solar system should also be present in the atmosphere, but neither has been detected in significant quantities.[31] The insignificant concentration of 36Ar and 38Ar also indicates that the ~40 K temperature required to trap them and N2 in clathrates did not exist in the Saturnian subnebula. Instead, the temperature may have been higher than 75 K, limiting even the accumulation of NH3 as hydrates.[32] Temperatures would have been even higher in the Jovian subnebula due to the greater gravitational potential energy release, mass, and proximity to the Sun, greatly reducing the NH3 inventory accreted by Callisto and Ganymede. The resulting N2 atmospheres may have been too thin to survive the atmospheric erosion effects that Titan has withstood.[32]
An alternative explanation is that cometary impacts release more energy on Callisto and Ganymede than they do at Titan due to the higher gravitational field of Jupiter. That could erode the atmospheres of Callisto and Ganymede, while the cometary material would actually build Titan's atmosphere. However, the 2H/1H (i.e., D/H) ratio of Titan's atmosphere is 2.3±0.5×10−4
,[31] nearly 1.5 times lower than that of comets.[30] The difference suggests that cometary material is unlikely to be the major contributor to Titan's atmosphere.

04-10-2011, 10:25 PM

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)

Cuckold is a derogatory term for a man whose wife is or has been unfaithful.

A cuckold can also be a male who gains sexual gratification out of watching his partner have intercourse with other people. Participation can range from simply watching, to being forced to join in or even forced to give sexual gratification to the other male also.

[hide] 1 History of the term
2 Cultural usage
3 Cuckoldry as a fetish 3.1 Theories in evolutionary psychology

4 See also
5 References
6 External links

[edit] History of the term

This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2010)

Cuckold is derived from the Old French for the cuckoo, coucou, with the pejorative suffix -old. The earliest written use of the Middle English derivation, cokewold, occurs in 1250, written by Jesse Conklin.[1] The females of certain varieties of cuckoo lay their eggs in other bird’s nests, freeing themselves from the need to nurture the eggs to hatching. The female equivalent cuckquean first appears in English literature in 1562, adding a female suffix to the "cuck"; Wittol, which substitutes "wete" (meaning witting or knowing) for the first part of the word, first appears in 1520.

Cuckolds have sometimes been written as "wearing the horns of a cuckold" or just "wearing the horns". This refers to the fact that the man being cuckolded is the last to know of his wife's infidelity. He is wearing horns that can be seen by everybody but him. This also refers to a tradition claiming that in villages of unknown European location, the community would gather to collectively humiliate a man whose wife gives birth to a child recognizably not his own. According to this legend, a parade was held in which the hapless husband is forced to wear antlers on his head as a symbol of his wife's infidelity. Whether or not this actually happened is unknown but the phrase has survived (also see the Italian insult cornuto).

Ca. 1815 French satire on cuckoldry, which shows both men and women wearing horns
In French, the equivalent term is porter des cornes, which is used by Molière to describe someone whose consort has been unfaithful. Molière's L'École des femmes (1662) is the story of a man who mocks cuckolds and becomes one at the end. In Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (c.1372-77), the Miller's Tale is a story that humorously examines the life of a cuckold.

[edit] Cultural usage

In many countries "horns" are a metaphor for suffering the infidelity of a partner, not limited to husbands in modern usage. The gesture of the horned hand can be used to insult the cuckold.[citation needed]

In Chinese,with unknown etymology, using the term "戴绿帽子"(wearing the green hat).
In Vietnamese, the word "bị cắm sừng" ("get attached with a horn"; ) is used.
In Croatian and Serbian the word "rogonja" has a similar meaning ("horned one"), and the phrase used is "nabiti rogove" ("to put horns on somebody").
In Czech and Slovak languages, the word "paroháč" ("antlered one"; ) is used, along with the phrase "nasadit parohy" ("nasadiť parohy" in Slovak) - "to put antlers on somebody".
A similar analogy exists in Greece, using the term "κερατάς" meaning "horned one".
In Hungarian the term is felszarvazni, meaning 'to put horns (on somebody)'.
The Italian equivalent is cornuto, sharing the same double entendre with the English word cornuted, asserting both featuring horns and cuckolded. Its use is playful and lightheartedly derisive, with little or no particular efficacy in scorning someone during confrontations as it is lacking earnest damning credentials, potentially leading all parties to a chuckle and smothering the feud at its inception. A pervasive metaphor parodies the use of cornuto to great effect: il bue che dà del cornuto all'asino, meaning the ox labelling the donkey cornute, equivalent to pot calling the kettle black.[citation needed]
The Japanese slang term "netorare" (lit. "taken away by sleeping with"), often abbreviated with the letters NTR, is an up-and-coming term on Japanese websites.
In Polish, the word "rogacz" ("horned one") is used, along with the phrase "przyprawiać rogi" ("to put horns on somebody").
In Portuguese, the terms corno ("horn") and cornudo or chifrudo ("horned") are used to spite or mock the cheated male partner. The expression corno manso ("tame horned") is used to indicate those men who, although cheated by their partners, come to accept it as a fact of their lives.
In Romanian is încornorat, meaning 'wearing horns'.
The Spanish word cornudo is used to describe a male partner whose female partner is sexually unfaithful. A consenting cuckold, cabrón, has such an offensive nuance that it is a taboo word rarely used with its original meaning, "billy goat". However, according to the tone and the relation to the addressed, it can be even laudatory.[citation needed]
In Trinidad and Tobago and also Grenada, the term "horn" is used in conjunction with cuckolds, or anyone of either sex who has a cheating spouse. Other uses include "to horn" (to sleep with someone else's spouse), "horning" (the act of cheating on your spouse), "horner-man" (a man who is sleeping with someone else's spouse) and "horner-woman" (a woman who is sleeping with someone else's spouse), "to get horn", "to take (a) horn". It is usually used in a pejorative sense. Numerous calypsoes have been written about the topic; the most famous being "Horn Me Sandra" by the calypsonian known as Lord Kitchener.
This horn analogy extends to Turkey, where the cuckolded husband is termed boynuzlu, "horned one". But it also includes the females that are cheated on.

[edit] Cuckoldry as a fetish

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A cuckold fetishist is aware of the spouse's activity and derives sexual pleasure from it.[2] This knowledge and tolerance of the spouse's activities makes the person in such relationships a wittol, properly speaking. But among fetishists the pose of reluctance—the victimization of the cuckold—is a major element of the kink so the more familiar word is used. In the fetish cuckolding subculture, the female is typically sexually dominant, while the man takes on a submissive role, only becoming involved with her or her lover when she permits it—sometimes remaining altogether celibate. Other arrangements are certainly possible, however, as wives can have husbands who take female lovers with their full knowledge.

The wife who enjoys cuckolding her husband is sometimes referred to as a hotwife or cuckoldress.[3]

[edit] Theories in evolutionary psychology

In his book Sperm Wars, biologist Robin Baker speculated that the excitement and stimulation of the cuckolding fetish emerges from the biology of sexuality and the effects of sexual arousal on the brain. According to his theory, when a man believes that his female mate may have been sexual with another man, the man mate is prompted by biological urges to copulate with the female, in an effort to "compete" with the other man's sperm. The effects of sperm competition are well documented.[4] Further, when initiating sex, the man mate thrusts harder, deeper and longer, in efforts to remove the sperm of the other man and is biologically driven to have sex multiple times. While he may be unable to have sex more than once under usual circumstances, the cuckolded man is prone to repeated sexual efforts. Meanwhile, the wife enjoys greater sexual stimulation, first by her other lover and second by her cuckolded husband. In addition, the wife enjoys the neurochemical "highs" triggered by entering into a romantic or physical relationship with another lover. These highs include the effects of oxytocin, other neurochemicals which trigger excitement, euphoria and other feelings common to the beginnings of romantic relationships. These neurochemicals change over time and as a relationship persists, with neurochemicals changing to ones that promote bonding, planning and nurturing. When a new lover is taken, it triggers the neurochemicals of a new relationship, bringing home excitement to her husband.[5]

The above exposition is contradicated by the hypothesized foundations for jealousy in evolutionary psychology, which is rooted in the idea that men specifically will react jealously to sexual infidelity on the parts of their mates.[6]

[edit] See also

Crime of passion
Cuckoldry in fish
Erotic humiliation
Female dominance
Open marriage
Paternity fraud
Paternity test
Pregnancy fetishism

[edit] References

1.^ Sommer, Matthew Harvey (2002). Sex, Law, and Society in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 218. ISBN 0804745595. Retrieved 2008-07-27.
2.^ "Savage Love: Gentlemen First".
3.^ Ley, David (2009). Insatiable Wives: Women Who Stray and the Men Who Love Them. Rowman & Littlefield.
4.^ Baker, Robin (1996). Sperm Wars, the Science of Sex. Diane Books Publishing.
5.^ Ley, David (2009). Insatiable Wives: Women Who Stray and the Men Who Love Them. Rowman & Littlefield.
6.^ Harris, C. R. (2002) Sexual and romantic jealousy in heterosexual and homosexual adults. Psychological Science 13(1), 7–12

[edit] External links

Look up cuckold in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Take My Wife, Please: The Rise of Cuckolding Culture
The Science of Cuckoldry and the Hotwife Lifestyle
Cuckold Community

04-11-2011, 04:34 AM
Ass to mouth

Ass to mouth is a common colloquial term used for the removal of the penis from the passive partner's anus followed by the immediate insertion of the penis into the passive partner's or another partner's mouth.

Alternate terminology

It is also known as A2M, ATM, ATG, Ass-to-Mouth or Arse-to-Gob (Scottish colloquial). Ass-to-mouth generally excludes cleaning the penis or other object after its removal from the anus and before its insertion into the mouth. This may enhance sexual excitement for both active and passive partners, often developing from connotations of domination/humiliation. Ass-to-Other-Mouth or Ass-to-Other-Girl-Mouth, abbreviated as A2OM, ATOM, A2OGM or ATOGM, specifically describes the variant of the act where the penis is moved from one partner's anus to a different partner's mouth. Another variation is known as A2P, ATP, or Ass-to-Pussy which refers to removing the penis from the anus and inserting it into the vagina. The term has been used since at least January 1995 and clearly defined since at least August 1996.[2] Despite its health risks, ass-to-mouth has become prevalent in pornographic films.[3]

Health risks

The health risks of ass-to-mouth include the risks of both oral sex and anal-oral sex. Unprotected oral-genital contact involves the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, such as genital herpes or chlamydia and HIV. HIV can be transmitted because rough anal sex, usually results in minuscule tearing of the rectal tissue, and small amounts of blood are left on the penis. When another partner sucks the penis, if they have a tiny sore, tear or cut in their mouth, they can get infected with HIV. The recipient of ass-to-mouth is also at risk of infection by Hepatitis A,[4] as well as intestinal parasites and other organisms that can be carried in feces, but the risk exists generally only if performing the act on a penis or object that was removed from a third person's rectum. For example, the third person would have to first be infected with Hepatitis A for there to be a risk of infection for the recipient.[5]

If the recipient of ass-to-mouth is performing fellatio on a penis or object that was removed from his/her own rectum, the health risks are generally limited to disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract, which may proceed from introducing normal intestinal flora from the rectum to the mouth and upper digestive tract. If the recipient's ano-rectal area is infected with a sexually transmitted disease like gonorrhea, however, there is an added risk of transmitting the infection to that person's mouth and/or throat.[6][dead link]

Some of the diseases that can be passed in the practice of ass-to-mouth involving a third person's rectum are gastroenteritis and enterocolitis, which are acute infections of the stomach, small intestine and/or large intestine, by gut flora organisms such as E. coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, Salmonella, or Yersinia, causing fever, vomiting, and diarrhea lasting for several days. Most other sexually transmitted bacterial diseases, like syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, can be transmitted by anal-oral contact. Viral diseases including herpes, cytomegalovirus, and human papillomavirus (the virus that causes cervical cancer and genital warts, as well as oral or laryngeal papillomas and carcinomas) can also be transmitted by this route.

It is unknown whether thoroughly washing the anal area and applying an enema results in reduced risk of disease, although general cleanliness is advisable for any sexual act. Porn-industry performers often use enemas prior to filming anal sex sequences; however, this is primarily to eliminate the possibility of any fecal matter appearing on film, rather than disease prevention.[7]

Cultural references

In the film Clerks II the main characters have a discussion on ass to mouth early in the film, and it is alluded to throughout the film. The main character, Dante, repeatedly warns Randal, "You never go ass to mouth!"[8]

04-11-2011, 05:04 AM

Cheetos Cheese n' Bacon Balls.