On this day, 1937, for the first time the President of the United States was inaugurated on January 20th. Previously inaugurated in March, the inauguration date was moved up to January 20th by virtue of the 20th Amendment to the US Constitution. The President taking the oath on this date was Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was being sworn in for his 2nd term.
Also on this day, 1265, England's parliament held its first meeting. Previously, under Anglo-Saxon Kings, nobles and other notables would advise the king. This group was known as the Witenagemot. (Harry Potter fans may note the similarity of this word to the Wizengamot). This group was abolished by William the Conqueror, and replaced by a King's Counsil.
On this day in 1265, however, for the first time a parliament of supporters of the Earl of Leicester was summoned, without royal authorization. In addition to the usual notables, two knights from each shire and two burgesses from each burough were summoned to join the parliament. Later adopted in 1295 as the model form of Parliament, the representation of the commoners on this day 1265 paved the way to the lower house of "Commons".
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