this is the basis of sociobiology. it has its roots in game theory... it makes sense on a fundamental level, but there are certain human behaviors and situations where it breaks down. it's not an all-encompassing theory by any means, but it's downright intriguing the implications of it.
if this interests you, go read 'the selfish gene,' 'the red queen' (richard dawkins and matt ridley are the authors, respectively). both are great and go into a bit of depth if you have any prior knowledge. both are written for those who have a BIT of knowledge, but the layman can understand them with a bit of effort.