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Old 05-21-2012, 09:43 PM  
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Science is Cool....

This is a repository for all cool scientific discussion and fascination. Scientific facts, theories, and overall cool scientific stuff that you'd like to share with others. Stuff that makes you smile and wonder at the amazing shit going on around us, that most people don't notice.

Post pictures, vidoes, stories, or links. Ask questions. Share science.

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Last edited by Fish; 01-07-2013 at 08:55 AM..
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Old 03-30-2017, 12:50 AM   #2701
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Protein Kinase C is an important molecule for signal transduction. An investigational compound would need to selectively target it without it affecting the numerous other cellular processes. That's likely why this is limited to solid, superficial tumors such as the one the woman with melanoma had. I wonder if it is too broad for liquid tumors (leukemias), and that's not to speak of the issues with scaling up and monitoring side effects in a patient population.

It's an interesting theory, but I'd still put much more of my anticancer money on monoclonal antibodies.
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Old 04-22-2017, 09:19 PM   #2702
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this is some wicked shit's :D

https://simplecapacity.com/2016/04/i...cient-secrets/

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For the first time in history, a combination of drought and overconsumption of water have pushed the river in India, the Shamala river in Karnataka to its limits, revealing under its bank secrets that have shocked the archaeological community. The receding river has revealed the presence of thousands of Shiva Lingas which were carved in the distant past along the river bed.


this poses more questions too. like, why was this river bed so shallow so long ago, which allowed these relics to be placed.

way more in link
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Old 04-23-2017, 08:23 AM   #2703
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https://simplecapacity.com/2016/04/i...cient-secrets/





this poses more questions too. like, why was this river bed so shallow so long ago, which allowed these relics to be placed.

way more in link
The water was probably sucked out of the river and to the polar caps to bolster them because they'e thinning.
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Old 08-06-2017, 05:57 PM   #2704
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Lots of great stuff in here. Not much of it all that new, but nice to get all the inside info in one place

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Old 11-06-2017, 09:40 PM   #2705
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Inside this small room — lined on all six sides with deep, fiberglass spikes — there is no background noise. No sounds from the street, the vents, the outside world. Only silence.

But in that silence, many visitors find their own bodies become quite noisy.

Sitting in this anechoic chamber, they suddenly hear their blood flow, their inner ears buzz, their artificial heart valves click.

“Oh my goodness,” says Rita Dibble, after just four minutes in the chamber alone, “I could actually hear every vertebra.

“This is the coolest thing I’ve ever seen.”

“Or heard,” says RickAllen Meek, a lab technician who, on this afternoon, was playing tour guide.

“Or not heard,” Dibble replies, grinning.

This room, within Orfield Laboratories Inc. in south Minneapolis, is so quiet that it measures negative 13 decibels. So quiet that Guinness World Records called it “the quietest place on Earth.” So quiet that film crews, acoustics nerds and curious kids journey here just to sit inside it.

“This is a room within a room within a room,” says Steve Orfield, 69, the lab’s longtime owner, “which is why it’s so quiet.”

The anechoic chamber — one of several testing spaces within the building — feels small: 8 by 10 by 12 feet. But surrounding that space, on all six sides, are fiberglass wedges, 3 feet deep. The chamber floats on vibration-damping springs. The outermost room is made of 12-inch-thick solid concrete.

For nearly five decades, Orfield has helped companies from 3M to Medtronic understand how people experience the look and sound of their products. Having a quiet room means that Orfield and his team can test quiet things. Heart valves, CPAP machines, cellphones.

But these days, Orfield is more interested in talking about how the room might help people with post-traumatic stress disorder, autism and other hypersensitivities. Those who have sat in the chamber’s silence described how it “reset their brains,” he said. “We think there’s great potential for therapeutic uses.”

Soon after installing the anechoic chamber in the addition to this building — the former home of Sound 80 studio, where Bob Dylan famously rerecorded five songs off “Blood on the Tracks” — Orfield set up $20,000 microphones that could measure up to minus 2.5 decibels. “It floored the mics,” Orfield says.

Guinness World Records recognized the chamber as the world’s quietest place twice — at negative 9.3 decibels in 2005 and minus 13 decibels in 2013. Some context: A human infant’s hearing limit is considered to be about 0 decibels.

But in 2015, Orfield Labs got bad news. Guinness was now bestowing its “quietest” title on an anechoic chamber at Microsoft’s headquarters in Washington. Their reading hit an “unimaginably quiet -20.35 dBA,” according to Guinness’ site (dBA is a decibel measurement).

Orfield disputes the claim. His lab was held to higher standards, he pointed out, including a requirement that the reading be maintained for an hour. His anechoic chamber, too, got instantaneous readings in the negative 20s, he says.

“We’re hoping to make a claim” to regain the title, Orfield says.

But Microsoft’s title hasn’t affected interest in this Minneapolis spot. The laboratories used to do free tours, asking visitors to donate $20 to a food shelf. But the visits were taking the lab’s handful of employees away from their work. Today, the lab charges $125 a person, with a $250 minimum.

“We charge them and they come,” Orfield says. “They come from all over the world.”

Dibble, who recently moved to St. Paul, had spotted the anechoic chamber in Atlas Obscura and was intrigued. “I thought, well, everybody’s going to the Capitol and to the cathedral,” she says. “I’m going to the anechoic chamber.”

She has long sung in choirs, appreciating the grand acoustics of a domed ceiling. So Dibble was fascinated by the idea of the opposite: a room that would allow no echo. “It’s like an antidote,” she says after her hourlong tour. “Even if you love something, you occasionally need a break from it.” 
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Old 12-01-2017, 04:37 AM   #2706
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This is insane...

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If the Chiefs manage to grab Mahomes I officially claim him as my "adopt a Chief".
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Old 12-01-2017, 06:13 AM   #2707
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Old Yesterday, 11:36 AM   #2708
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NASA Is Hosting a Conference to Detail a Major Alien Planet Discovery

NASA announcing a new discovery today. Live conference at noon. Watch here: https://www.nasa.gov/live

NASA has announced plans to livestream a major media briefing on Thursday, December 14. The agency says the event will focus on the latest Kepler discovery, which was facilitated by machine learning techniques from Google.

NEW FINDINGS
NASA has announced a media teleconference set to take place at 1 p.m. EST on Thursday, December 14. The agency says the purpose of the event, which will stream live via the NASA website, is to reveal a new Kepler discovery. According to the announcement, the researchers used machine learning techniques developed by Google to draw new knowledge from data collected by the craft.

Kepler was launched in 2009, and it has already profoundly affected our understanding of space. When it set out on its voyage, we didn’t know how common planets were outside of our solar system. Now, thanks to the insights provided by Kepler, astronomers believe there might be one or more planets orbiting every star.



Due to issues with Kepler’s reaction wheels, its initial planet-hunting mission was brought to an end in 2013. Since then, it’s been on the hunt for exoplanets using its remaining capabilities.

Kepler has been used to observe the seven planets that comprise the TRAPPIST-1 system. NASA announced the discovery of these worlds in February 2017, and since then, the agency has been using Kepler, Spitzer, and Hubble to find out more about these bodies and their potential to support life.

NASA isn’t the only space agency that’s been consistently sharing major discoveries. In October, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) shared news of an “unprecedented” finding pertaining to gravitational waves. That announcement turned out to be the first time we were able to observe gravitational waves and light from the same event concurrently.

We don’t know what this latest Kepler discovery will be about, but the last time NASA announced a major news conference like the one scheduled for December 14, TRAPPIST-1 was the focus, so it’s reasonable to assume this week’s announcement will be something suitably exciting. Thankfully, the wait to find out for sure is a brief one.

https://futurism.com/nasa-hosting-co...net-discovery/
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Old Today, 01:41 PM   #2709
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Old Today, 02:36 PM   #2710
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Artificial Intelligence, NASA Data Used to Discover Eighth Planet Circling Distant Star

Our solar system now is tied for most number of planets around a single star, with the recent discovery of an eighth planet circling Kepler-90, a Sun-like star 2,545 light-years from Earth. The planet was discovered in data from NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope.

The newly-discovered Kepler-90i – a sizzling hot, rocky planet that orbits its star once every 14.4 days – was found using machine learning from Google. Machine learning is an approach to artificial intelligence in which computers “learn.” In this case, computers learned to identify planets by finding in Kepler data instances where the telescope recorded signals from planets beyond our solar system, known as exoplanets.



“Just as we expected, there are exciting discoveries lurking in our archived Kepler data, waiting for the right tool or technology to unearth them,” said Paul Hertz, director of NASA’s Astrophysics Division in Washington. “This finding shows that our data will be a treasure trove available to innovative researchers for years to come.”

The discovery came about after researchers Christopher Shallue and Andrew Vanderburg trained a computer to learn how to identify exoplanets in the light readings recorded by Kepler – the minuscule change in brightness captured when a planet passed in front of, or transited, a star. Inspired by the way neurons connect in the human brain, this artificial “neural network” sifted through Kepler data and found weak transit signals from a previously-missed eighth planet orbiting Kepler-90, in the constellation Draco.

While machine learning has previously been used in searches of the Kepler database, this research demonstrates that neural networks are a promising tool in finding some of the weakest signals of distant worlds.

Other planetary systems probably hold more promise for life than Kepler-90. About 30 percent larger than Earth, Kepler-90i is so close to its star that its average surface temperature is believed to exceed 800 degrees Fahrenheit, on par with Mercury. Its outermost planet, Kepler-90h, orbits at a similar distance to its star as Earth does to the Sun.

“The Kepler-90 star system is like a mini version of our solar system. You have small planets inside and big planets outside, but everything is scrunched in much closer,” said Vanderburg, a NASA Sagan Postdoctoral Fellow and astronomer at the University of Texas at Austin.

Shallue, a senior software engineer with Google’s research team Google AI, came up with the idea to apply a neural network to Kepler data. He became interested in exoplanet discovery after learning that astronomy, like other branches of science, is rapidly being inundated with data as the technology for data collection from space advances.

“In my spare time, I started googling for ‘finding exoplanets with large data sets’ and found out about the Kepler mission and the huge data set available,” said Shallue. "Machine learning really shines in situations where there is so much data that humans can't search it for themselves.”

Kepler’s four-year dataset consists of 35,000 possible planetary signals. Automated tests, and sometimes human eyes, are used to verify the most promising signals in the data. However, the weakest signals often are missed using these methods. Shallue and Vanderburg thought there could be more interesting exoplanet discoveries faintly lurking in the data.

First, they trained the neural network to identify transiting exoplanets using a set of 15,000 previously-vetted signals from the Kepler exoplanet catalogue. In the test set, the neural network correctly identified true planets and false positives 96 percent of the time. Then, with the neural network having "learned" to detect the pattern of a transiting exoplanet, the researchers directed their model to search for weaker signals in 670 star systems that already had multiple known planets. Their assumption was that multiple-planet systems would be the best places to look for more exoplanets.

“We got lots of false positives of planets, but also potentially more real planets,” said Vanderburg. “It’s like sifting through rocks to find jewels. If you have a finer sieve then you will catch more rocks but you might catch more jewels, as well.”

Kepler-90i wasn’t the only jewel this neural network sifted out. In the Kepler-80 system, they found a sixth planet. This one, the Earth-sized Kepler-80g, and four of its neighboring planets form what is called a resonant chain – where planets are locked by their mutual gravity in a rhythmic orbital dance. The result is an extremely stable system, similar to the seven planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system.

Their research paper reporting these findings has been accepted for publication in The Astronomical Journal. Shallue and Vanderburg plan to apply their neural network to Kepler’s full set of more than 150,000 stars.

Kepler has produced an unprecedented data set for exoplanet hunting. After gazing at one patch of space for four years, the spacecraft now is operating on an extended mission and switches its field of view every 80 days.

“These results demonstrate the enduring value of Kepler’s mission,” said Jessie Dotson, Kepler’s project scientist at NASA’s Ames Research Center in California’s Silicon Valley. “New ways of looking at the data – such as this early-stage research to apply machine learning algorithms – promises to continue to yield significant advances in our understanding of planetary systems around other stars. I’m sure there are more firsts in the data waiting for people to find them.”

Ames manages the Kepler and K2 missions for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, managed Kepler mission development. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation operates the flight system with support from the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This work was performed through the Carl Sagan Postdoctoral Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute.
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Old Today, 02:40 PM   #2711
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Oumuamua

Solar System’s First Interstellar Visitor Dazzles Scientists

Astronomers recently scrambled to observe an intriguing asteroid that zipped through the solar system on a steep trajectory from interstellar space—the first confirmed object from another star.



Now, new data reveal the interstellar interloper to be a rocky, cigar-shaped object with a somewhat reddish hue. The asteroid, named ‘Oumuamua by its discoverers, is up to one-quarter mile (400 meters) long and highly-elongated—perhaps 10 times as long as it is wide. That aspect ratio is greater than that of any asteroid or comet observed in our solar system to date. While its elongated shape is quite surprising, and unlike asteroids seen in our solar system, it may provide new clues into how other solar systems formed.

The observations and analyses were funded in part by NASA and appear in the Nov. 20 issue of the journal Nature. They suggest this unusual object had been wandering through the Milky Way, unattached to any star system, for hundreds of millions of years before its chance encounter with our star system.

“For decades we’ve theorized that such interstellar objects are out there, and now – for the first time – we have direct evidence they exist,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. “This history-making discovery is opening a new window to study formation of solar systems beyond our own.”

Immediately after its discovery, telescopes around the world, including ESO’s Very Large Telescope in Chile and other observatories around the world were called into action to measure the object’s orbit, brightness and color. Urgency for viewing from ground-based telescopes was vital to get the best data.

Combining the images from the FORS instrument on the ESO telescope using four different filters with those of other large telescopes, a team of astronomers led by Karen Meech of the Institute for Astronomy in Hawaii found that ‘Oumuamua varies in brightness by a factor of ten as it spins on its axis every 7.3 hours. No known asteroid or comet from our solar system varies so widely in brightness, with such a large ratio between length and width. The most elongated objects we have seen to date are no more than three times longer than they are wide.

“This unusually big variation in brightness means that the object is highly elongated: about ten times as long as it is wide, with a complex, convoluted shape,” said Meech. We also found that it had a reddish color, similar to objects in the outer solar system, and confirmed that it is completely inert, without the faintest hint of dust around it.”

These properties suggest that ‘Oumuamua is dense, comprised of rock and possibly metals, has no water or ice, and that its surface was reddened due to the effects of irradiation from cosmic rays over hundreds of millions of years.

A few large ground-based telescopes continue to track the asteroid, though it’s rapidly fading as it recedes from our planet. Two of NASA’s space telescopes (Hubble and Spitzer) are tracking the object the week of Nov. 20. As of Nov. 20, ‘Oumuamua is travelling about 85,700 miles per hour (38.3 kilometers per second) relative to the Sun. Its location is approximately 124 million miles (200 million kilometers) from Earth -- the distance between Mars and Jupiter – though its outbound path is about 20 degrees above the plane of planets that orbit the Sun. The object passed Mars’s orbit around Nov. 1 and will pass Jupiter’s orbit in May of 2018. It will travel beyond Saturn’s orbit in January 2019; as it leaves our solar system, ‘Oumuamua will head for the constellation Pegasus.

Observations from large ground-based telescopes will continue until the object becomes too faint to be detected, sometime after mid-December. NASA’s Center for Near-Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) continues to take all available tracking measurements to refine the trajectory of 1I/2017 U1 as it exits our solar system.

This remarkable object was discovered Oct. 19 by the University of Hawaii’s Pan-STARRS1 telescope, funded by NASA’s Near-Earth Object Observations (NEOO) Program, which finds and tracks asteroids and comets in Earth’s neighborhood. NASA Planetary Defense Officer Lindley Johnson said, “We are fortunate that our sky survey telescope was looking in the right place at the right time to capture this historic moment. This serendipitous discovery is bonus science enabled by NASA’s efforts to find, track and characterize near-Earth objects that could potentially pose a threat to our planet.”

Preliminary orbital calculations suggest that the object came from the approximate direction of the bright star Vega, in the northern constellation of Lyra. However, it took so long for the interstellar object to make the journey – even at the speed of about 59,000 miles per hour (26.4 kilometers per second) -- that Vega was not near that position when the asteroid was there about 300,000 years ago.

While originally classified as a comet, observations from ESO and elsewhere revealed no signs of cometary activity after it slingshotted past the Sun on Sept. 9 at a blistering speed of 196,000 miles per hour (87.3 kilometers per second).

The object has since been reclassified as interstellar asteroid 1I/2017 U1 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), which is responsible for granting official names to bodies in the solar system and beyond. In addition to the technical name, the Pan-STARRS team dubbed it ‘Oumuamua (pronounced oh MOO-uh MOO-uh), which is Hawaiian for “a messenger from afar arriving first.”

Astronomers estimate that an interstellar asteroid similar to ‘Oumuamua passes through the inner solar system about once per year, but they are faint and hard to spot and have been missed until now. It is only recently that survey telescopes, such as Pan-STARRS, are powerful enough to have a chance to discover them.

“What a fascinating discovery this is!” said Paul Chodas, manager of the Center for Near-Earth Object Studies at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. “It’s a strange visitor from a faraway star system, shaped like nothing we’ve ever seen in our own solar system neighborhood.”
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Old Today, 02:44 PM   #2712
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Once one understands how absurdly vast the universe is, then the question fo whether there are planets around other stars, and inevitably life of some sort on some of those other planets, becomes completely academic.

We estimate roughly 100 billion STARS in the Milky Way alone. Our sun is just one of them. Nobody knows how many galaxies there are, but ten trillion is about the best guess we have.

So 100 billion times ten trillion stars. And whatever innumerable number of planets around those. Unquestionably the odds of life on any given planet are infinitesimally low, but given the number of planets around that ridiculous number of stars....yeah.
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Old Today, 02:45 PM   #2713
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400 meters long with a slender cigar shape is how I would envision an interstellar scout ship. Just saying.
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Old Today, 02:50 PM   #2714
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Old Today, 03:03 PM   #2715
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Join Date: Sep 2005
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This was a really interesting read...

HOW TO KILL A DINOSAUR IN 10 MINUTES

Spoiler!
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Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.Fish is obviously part of the inner Circle.
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